skip to main content

Title: Zero-Field J-spectroscopy of Quadrupolar Nuclei
Zero- to ultralow-field (ZULF) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a version of NMR that allows studying molecules and their transformations in the regime dominated by intrinsic spin-spin interactions. While spin dynamics at zero magnetic field can be probed indirectly, J-spectra can also be measured at zero field by using non-inductive sensors, for example, optically-pumped magnetometers (OPMs). A J-spectrum can be detected when a molecule contains at least two different types of magnetic nuclei (i.e., nuclei with different gyromagnetic ratios) that are coupled via J-coupling. Up to date, no pure J-spectra of molecules featuring the coupling to quadrupolar nuclei were reported. Here we show that zero-field J-spectra can be collected from molecules containing quadrupolar nuclei with I = 1 and demonstrate this for solutions containing various isotopologues of ammonium cations. Lower ZULF NMR signals are observed for molecules containing larger numbers of deuterons compared to protons; this is attributed to less overall magnetization and not to the scalar relaxation of the second kind. We analyze the energy structure and allowed transitions for the studied molecular cations in detail using perturbation theory and demonstrate that in the studied systems, different lines in J-spectra have different dependencies on the magnetic pulse length allowing more » for unique on-demand zero-field spectral editing. Precise values for the 15N-1H, 14N-1H, and D-1H coupling constants are extracted from the spectra and the difference in the reduced coupling constants is explained by the secondary isotope effect. Simple symmetric cations such as ammonium do not require expensive isotopic labeling for the observation of J-spectra and, thus, may expand the applicability of ZULF NMR spectroscopy in biomedicine and energy storage. « less
; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Zero- to ultralow-field (ZULF) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is an emerging tool for precision chemical analysis. In this work, we study dynamic processes and investigate the influence of chemical exchange on ZULF NMRJ-spectra. We develop a computational approach that allows quantitative calculation ofJ-spectra in the presence of chemical exchange and apply it to study aqueous solutions of [15N]ammonium (15N$${\mathrm{H}}_4^ +$$H4+) as a model system. We show that pH-dependent chemical exchange substantially affects theJ-spectra and, in some cases, can lead to degradation and complete disappearance of the spectral features. To demonstrate potential applications of ZULF NMR for chemistry and biomedicine, we show a ZULF NMR spectrum of [2-13C]pyruvic acid hyperpolarized via dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (dDNP). We foresee applications of affordable and scalable ZULF NMR coupled with hyperpolarization to study chemical exchange phenomena in vivo and in situations where high-field NMR detection is not possible to implement.

  2. Abstract We present Raman-scattering results for three materials, CeB 6 , TbInO 3 , and YbRu 2 Ge 2 , to illustrate the essential aspects of crystal-field (CF) excitations and quadrupolar fluctuations of 4 f -electron systems. For CF excitations, we illustrate how the 4 f orbits are split by spin-orbit coupling and CF potential by presenting spectra for inter- and intra-multiplet excitations over a large energy range. We discuss identification of the CF ground state and establishment of low-energy CF level scheme from the symmetry and energy of measured CF excitations. In addition, we demonstrate that the CF linewidth is a sensitive probe of electron correlation by virtue of self-energy effect. For quadrupolar fluctuations, we discuss both ferroquadrupolar (FQ) and antiferroquadrupolar (AFQ) cases. Long-wavelength quadrupolar fluctuations of the same symmetry as the FQ order parameter persists well above the transition temperature, from which the strength of electronic intersite quadrupolar interaction can be evaluated. The tendency towards AFQ ordering induces ferromagnetic correlation between neighboring 4 f -ion sites, leading to long-wavelength magnetic fluctuations.
  3. We demonstrate that natural isotopic abundance 2D heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) solid-state NMR spectra can be used to significantly reduce or eliminate the broadening of 1 H and 13 C solid-state NMR spectra of organic solids due to anisotropic bulk magnetic susceptibility (ABMS). ABMS often manifests in solids with aromatic groups, such as active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), and inhomogeneously broadens the NMR peaks of all nuclei in the sample. Inhomogeneous peaks with full widths at half maximum (FWHM) of ∼1 ppm typically result from ABMS broadening and the low spectral resolution impedes the analysis of solid-state NMR spectra. ABMS broadening of solid-state NMR spectra has previously been eliminated using 2D multiple-quantum correlation experiments, or by performing NMR experiments on diluted materials or single crystals. However, these experiments are often infeasible due to their poor sensitivity and/or provide limited gains in resolution. 2D 1 H– 13 C HETCOR experiments have previously been applied to reduce susceptibility broadening in paramagnetic solids and we show that this strategy can significantly reduce ABMS broadening in diamagnetic organic solids. Comparisons of 1D solid-state NMR spectra and 1 H and 13 C solid-state NMR spectra obtained from 2D 1 H– 13 C HETCOR NMR spectra show thatmore »the HETCOR spectrum directly increases resolution by a factor of 1.5 to 8. The direct gain in resolution is determined by the ratio of the inhomogeneous 13 C/ 1 H linewidth to the homogeneous 1 H linewidth, with the former depending on the magnitude of the ABMS broadening and the strength of the applied field and the latter on the efficiency of homonuclear decoupling. The direct gains in resolution obtained using the 2D HETCOR experiments are better than that obtained by dilution. For solids with long proton longitudinal relaxation times, dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) was applied to enhance sensitivity and enable the acquisition of 2D 1 H– 13 C HETCOR NMR spectra. 2D 1 H– 13 C HETCOR experiments were applied to resolve and partially assign the NMR signals of the form I and form II polymorphs of aspirin in a sample containing both forms. These findings have important implications for ultra-high field NMR experiments, optimization of decoupling schemes and assessment of the fundamental limits on the resolution of solid-state NMR spectra.« less
  4. Recently, Santos et al. published an article titled “Chirality-Induced Electron Spin Polarization and Enantiospecific Response in Solid-State Cross-Polarization Nuclear Magnetic Resonance” in ACS Nano. In this article it was claimed that crystalline amino acid enantiomers can give rise to 1H-15N and 1H-13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) solid-state NMR spectra with different relative signal intensities. The authors attributed such differences to transient changes in T1 relaxation times resulting from an interaction between the electron spins and the radiofrequency contact pulses used in the CPMAS experiment, and discussed this proposed phenomenon in terms of the chirality-induced spin selectivity (CISS) effect. We disagree with the authors conclusion that the CISS effect plays a role in the different signal intensities observed in the CPMAS solid-state NMR spectra of crystalline enantiomers. Quantitative 13C CPMAS experiments on aspartic acid enantiomers demonstrate that CPMAS signal variations can likely be attributed to sample dependent differences in T1 relaxation times rather than any chirality effects.
  5. The self-assembly of carbohydrate-based low molecular weight gelators has led to useful advanced soft materials. The interactions of the gelators with various cations and anions are important in creating novel molecular architectures and expanding the scope of the small molecular gelators. In this study, a series of thirteen new C-2 carbamates of the 4,6-O-phenylethylidene acetal-protected D-glucosamine derivatives has been synthesized and characterized. These compounds are rationally designed from a common sugar template. All carbamates synthesized were found to be efficient gelators and three compounds are also hydrogelators. The resulting gels were characterized using optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and rheology. The gelation mechanisms were further elucidated using 1H NMR spectroscopy at different temperatures. The isopropyl carbamate hydrogelator 7 formed hydrogels at 0.2 wt% and also formed gels with several tetra alkyl ammonium salts, and showed effectiveness in the creation of gel electrolytes. The formation of metallogels using earth-abundant metal ions such as copper, nickel, iron, zinc, as well as silver and lead salts was evaluated for a few gelators. Using chemiluminescence spectroscopy, the metal–organic xerogels showed enzyme-like properties and enhanced luminescence for luminol. In addition, we also studied the applications of several gels for drug immobilizations and the gels showedmore »sustained release of naproxen from the gel matrices. This robust sugar carbamate-derived gelator system can be used as the scaffold for the design of other functional materials with various types of applications.« less