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Jansson, Janet K. (Ed.)ABSTRACT Soil ecosystems harbor diverse microorganisms and yet remain only partially characterized as neither single-cell sequencing nor whole-community sequencing offers a complete picture of these complex communities. Thus, the genetic and metabolic potential of this “uncultivated majority” remains underexplored. To address these challenges, we applied a pooled-cell-sorting-based mini-metagenomics approach and compared the results to bulk metagenomics. Informatic binning of these data produced 200 mini-metagenome assembled genomes (sorted-MAGs) and 29 bulk metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs). The sorted and bulk MAGs increased the known phylogenetic diversity of soil taxa by 7.2% with respect to the Joint Genome Institute IMG/M database and showed clade-specific sequence recruitment patterns across diverse terrestrial soil metagenomes. Additionally, sorted-MAGs expanded the rare biosphere not captured through MAGs from bulk sequences, exemplified through phylogenetic and functional analyses of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes . Analysis of 67 Bacteroidetes sorted-MAGs showed conserved patterns of carbon metabolism across four clades. These results indicate that mini-metagenomics enables genome-resolved investigation of predicted metabolism and demonstrates the utility of combining metagenomics methods to tap into the diversity of heterogeneous microbial assemblages. IMPORTANCE Microbial ecologists have historically used cultivation-based approaches as well as amplicon sequencing and shotgun metagenomics to characterize microbial diversity in soil. However,more »
Estimating maximal microbial growth rates from cultures, metagenomes, and single cells via codon usage patternsMaximal growth rate is a basic parameter of microbial lifestyle that varies over several orders of magnitude, with doubling times ranging from a matter of minutes to multiple days. Growth rates are typically measured using laboratory culture experiments. Yet, we lack sufficient understanding of the physiology of most microbes to design appropriate culture conditions for them, severely limiting our ability to assess the global diversity of microbial growth rates. Genomic estimators of maximal growth rate provide a practical solution to survey the distribution of microbial growth potential, regardless of cultivation status. We developed an improved maximal growth rate estimator and predicted maximal growth rates from over 200,000 genomes, metagenome-assembled genomes, and single-cell amplified genomes to survey growth potential across the range of prokaryotic diversity; extensions allow estimates from 16S rRNA sequences alone as well as weighted community estimates from metagenomes. We compared the growth rates of cultivated and uncultivated organisms to illustrate how culture collections are strongly biased toward organisms capable of rapid growth. Finally, we found that organisms naturally group into two growth classes and observed a bias in growth predictions for extremely slow-growing organisms. These observations ultimately led us to suggest evolutionary definitions of oligotrophy and copiotrophy basedmore »
Abstract Background Tropical members of the sponge genus Ircinia possess highly complex microbiomes that perform a broad spectrum of chemical processes that influence host fitness. Despite the pervasive role of microbiomes in Ircinia biology, it is still unknown how they remain in stable association across tropical species. To address this question, we performed a comparative analysis of the microbiomes of 11 Ircinia species using whole-metagenomic shotgun sequencing data to investigate three aspects of bacterial symbiont genomes—the redundancy in metabolic pathways across taxa, the evolution of genes involved in pathogenesis, and the nature of selection acting on genes relevant to secondary metabolism. Results A total of 424 new, high-quality bacterial metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) were produced for 10 Caribbean Ircinia species, which were evaluated alongside 113 publicly available MAGs sourced from the Pacific species Ircinia ramosa . Evidence of redundancy was discovered in that the core genes of several primary metabolic pathways could be found in the genomes of multiple bacterial taxa. Across hosts, the metagenomes were depleted in genes relevant to pathogenicity and enriched in eukaryotic-like proteins (ELPs) that likely mimic the hosts’ molecular patterning. Finally, clusters of steroid biosynthesis genes (CSGs), which appear to be under purifying selection and undergomore »
Abstract Microbial and viral communities transform the chemistry of Earth's ecosystems, yet the specific reactions catalyzed by these biological engines are hard to decode due to the absence of a scalable, metabolically resolved, annotation software. Here, we present DRAM (Distilled and Refined Annotation of Metabolism), a framework to translate the deluge of microbiome-based genomic information into a catalog of microbial traits. To demonstrate the applicability of DRAM across metabolically diverse genomes, we evaluated DRAM performance on a defined, in silico soil community and previously published human gut metagenomes. We show that DRAM accurately assigned microbial contributions to geochemical cycles and automated the partitioning of gut microbial carbohydrate metabolism at substrate levels. DRAM-v, the viral mode of DRAM, established rules to identify virally-encoded auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs), resulting in the metabolic categorization of thousands of putative AMGs from soils and guts. Together DRAM and DRAM-v provide critical metabolic profiling capabilities that decipher mechanisms underpinning microbiome function.
METABOLIC: high-throughput profiling of microbial genomes for functional traits, metabolism, biogeochemistry, and community-scale functional networks
Advances in microbiome science are being driven in large part due to our ability to study and infer microbial ecology from genomes reconstructed from mixed microbial communities using metagenomics and single-cell genomics. Such omics-based techniques allow us to read genomic blueprints of microorganisms, decipher their functional capacities and activities, and reconstruct their roles in biogeochemical processes. Currently available tools for analyses of genomic data can annotate and depict metabolic functions to some extent; however, no standardized approaches are currently available for the comprehensive characterization of metabolic predictions, metabolite exchanges, microbial interactions, and microbial contributions to biogeochemical cycling.
We present METABOLIC (METabolic And BiogeOchemistry anaLyses In miCrobes), a scalable software to advance microbial ecology and biogeochemistry studies using genomes at the resolution of individual organisms and/or microbial communities. The genome-scale workflow includes annotation of microbial genomes, motif validation of biochemically validated conserved protein residues, metabolic pathway analyses, and calculation of contributions to individual biogeochemical transformations and cycles. The community-scale workflow supplements genome-scale analyses with determination of genome abundance in the microbiome, potential microbial metabolic handoffs and metabolite exchange, reconstruction of functional networks, and determination of microbial contributions to biogeochemical cycles. METABOLIC can take input genomes from isolates, metagenome-assembled genomes, ormore »
METABOLIC enables the consistent and reproducible study of microbial community ecology and biogeochemistry using a foundation of genome-informed microbial metabolism, and will advance the integration of uncultivated organisms into metabolic and biogeochemical models. METABOLIC is written in Perl and R and is freely available under GPLv3 at