The effect of the two‐dimensional glycan display on glycan‐lectin recognition remains poorly understood despite the importance of these interactions in a plethora of cellular processes, in (patho)physiology, as well as its potential for advanced therapeutics. Faced with this challenge we utilized glycodendrimersomes, a type of synthetic vesicles whose membrane mimics the surface of a cell and offers a means to probe the carbohydrate biological activity. These single‐component vesicles were formed by the self‐assembly of sequence‐defined mannose‐Janus dendrimers, which serve as surrogates for glycolipids. Using atomic force microscopy and molecular modeling we demonstrated that even mannose, a monosaccharide, was capable of organizing the sugar moieties into periodic nanoarrays without the need of the formation of liquid‐ordered phases as assumed necessary for rafts. Kinetics studies of Concanavalin A binding revealed that those nanoarrays resulted in a new effective ligand yielding a ten‐fold increase in the kinetic and thermodynamic constant of association.
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 11931 to 11939
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Enhanced Concanavalin A Binding to Preorganized Mannose Nanoarrays in Glycodendrimersomes Revealed Multivalent Interactions
Self-assembling dendrimers have facilitated the discovery of periodic and quasiperiodic arrays of supramolecular architectures and the diverse functions derived from them. Examples are liquid quasicrystals and their approximants plus helical columns and spheres, including some that disregard chirality. The same periodic and quasiperiodic arrays were subsequently found in block copolymers, surfactants, lipids, glycolipids, and other complex molecules. Here we report the discovery of lamellar and hexagonal periodic arrays on the surface of vesicles generated from sequence-defined bicomponent monodisperse oligomers containing lipid and glycolipid mimics. These vesicles, known as glycodendrimersomes, act as cell-membrane mimics with hierarchical morphologies resembling bicomponent rafts. These nanosegregated morphologies diminish sugar–sugar interactions enabling stronger binding to sugar-binding proteins than densely packed arrangements of sugars. Importantly, this provides a mechanism to encode the reactivity of sugars via their interaction with sugar-binding proteins. The observed sugar phase-separated hierarchical arrays with lamellar and hexagonal morphologies that encode biological recognition are among the most complex architectures yet discovered in soft matter. The enhanced reactivity of the sugar displays likely has applications in material science and nanomedicine, with potential to evolve into related technologies.
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