skip to main content


Title: Design of efficacious somatic cell genome editing strategies for recessive and polygenic diseases
Abstract Compound heterozygous recessive or polygenic diseases could be addressed through gene correction of multiple alleles. However, targeting of multiple alleles using genome editors could lead to mixed genotypes and adverse events that amplify during tissue morphogenesis. Here we demonstrate that Cas9-ribonucleoprotein-based genome editors can correct two distinct mutant alleles within a single human cell precisely. Gene-corrected cells in an induced pluripotent stem cell model of Pompe disease expressed the corrected transcript from both corrected alleles, leading to enzymatic cross-correction of diseased cells. Using a quantitative in silico model for the in vivo delivery of genome editors into the developing human infant liver, we identify progenitor targeting, delivery efficiencies, and suppression of imprecise editing outcomes at the on-target site as key design parameters that control the efficacy of various therapeutic strategies. This work establishes that precise gene editing to correct multiple distinct gene variants could be highly efficacious if designed appropriately.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1350178 1645123
NSF-PAR ID:
10208772
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Nature Communications
Volume:
11
Issue:
1
ISSN:
2041-1723
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Cytosine base editors (CBEs) enable efficient cytidine-to-thymidine (C-to-T) substitutions at targeted loci without double-stranded breaks. However, current CBEs edit all Cs within their activity windows, generating undesired bystander mutations. In the most challenging circumstance, when a bystander C is adjacent to the targeted C , existing base editors fail to discriminate them and edit both Cs. To improve the precision of CBE, we identified and engineered the human APOBEC3G (A3G) deaminase; when fused to the Cas9 nickase, the resulting A3G-BEs exhibit selective editing of the second C in the 5′-C C -3′ motif in human cells. Our A3G-BEs could install a single disease-associated C-to-T substitution with high precision. The percentage of perfectly modified alleles is more than 6000-fold for disease correction and more than 600-fold for disease modeling compared with BE4max. On the basis of the two-cell embryo injection method and RNA sequencing analysis, our A3G-BEs showed minimum genome- and transcriptome-wide off-target effects, achieving high targeting fidelity. 
    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    The recent discovery and subsequent development of the CRISPR–Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat–CRISPR-associated protein 9) platform as a precise genome editing tool have transformed biomedicine. As these CRISPR-based tools have matured, multiple stages of the gene editing process and the bioengineering of human cells and tissues have advanced. Here, we highlight recent intersections in the development of biomaterials and genome editing technologies. These intersections include the delivery of macromolecules, where biomaterial platforms have been harnessed to enable nonviral delivery of genome engineering tools to cells and tissues in vivo. Further, engineering native-like biomaterial platforms for cell culture facilitates complex modeling of human development and disease when combined with genome engineering tools. Deeper integration of biomaterial platforms in these fields could play a significant role in enabling new breakthroughs in the application of gene editing for the treatment of human disease. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Inherited retinal degeneration is a term used to describe heritable disorders that result from the death of light sensing photoreceptor cells. Although we and others believe that it will be possible to use gene therapy to halt disease progression early in its course, photoreceptor cell replacement will likely be required for patients who have already lost their sight. While advances in autologous photoreceptor cell manufacturing have been encouraging, development of technologies capable of efficiently delivering genome editing reagents to stem cells using current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) are needed. Gene editing reagents were delivered to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using a Zephyr microfluidic transfection platform (CellFE). CRISPR-mediated cutting was quantified using an endonuclease assay. CRISPR correction was confirmed via digital PCR and Sanger sequencing. The resulting corrected cells were also karyotyped and differentiated into retinal organoids. We describe use of a novel microfluidic transfection platform to correct, via CRISPR-mediated homology-dependent repair (HDR), a disease-causing NR2E3 mutation in patient-derived iPSCs using cGMP compatible reagents and approaches. We show that the resulting cell lines have a corrected genotype, exhibit no off-target cutting, retain pluripotency and a normal karyotype and can be differentiated into retinal tissue suitable for transplantation. The ability to codeliver CRISPR/Cas9 and HDR templates to patient-derived iPSCs without using proprietary transfection reagents will streamline manufacturing protocols, increase the safety of resulting cell therapies, and greatly reduce the regulatory burden of clinical trials.

     
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Among CRISPR-Cas genome editing systems,Streptococcus pyogenesCas9 (SpCas9), sourced from a human pathogen, is the most widely used. Here, through in silico data mining, we have established an efficient plant genome engineering system using CRISPR-Cas9 from probioticLactobacillus rhamnosus. We have confirmed the predicted 5’-NGAAA-3’ PAM via a bacterial PAM depletion assay and showcased its exceptional editing efficiency in rice, wheat, tomato, and Larix cells, surpassing LbCas12a, SpCas9-NG, and SpRY when targeting the identical sequences. In stable rice lines, LrCas9 facilitates multiplexed gene knockout through coding sequence editing and achieves gene knockdown via targeted promoter deletion, demonstrating high specificity. We have also developed LrCas9-derived cytosine and adenine base editors, expanding base editing capabilities. Finally, by harnessing LrCas9’s A/T-rich PAM targeting preference, we have created efficient CRISPR interference and activation systems in plants. Together, our work establishes CRISPR-LrCas9 as an efficient and user-friendly genome engineering tool for diverse applications in crops and beyond.

     
    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    CRISPR‐Cas9 has been shown to be a valuable tool in recent years, allowing researchers to precisely edit the genome using an RNA‐guided nuclease to initiate double‐strand breaks. Until recently, classical RAD51‐mediated homologous recombination has been a powerful tool for gene targeting in the mossPhyscomitrella patens. However, CRISPR‐Cas9‐mediated genome editing inP. patenswas shown to be more efficient than traditional homologous recombination (Plant Biotechnology Journal, 15, 2017, 122). CRISPR‐Cas9 provides the opportunity to efficiently edit the genome at multiple loci as well as integrate sequences at precise locations in the genome using a simple transient transformation. To fully take advantage of CRISPR‐Cas9 genome editing inP. patens, here we describe the generation and use of a flexible and modular CRISPR‐Cas9 vector system. Without the need for gene synthesis, this vector system enables editing of up to 12 loci simultaneously. Using this system, we generated multiple lines that had null alleles at four distant loci. We also found that targeting multiple sites within a single locus can produce larger deletions, but the success of this depends on individual protospacers. To take advantage of homology‐directed repair, we developed modular vectors to rapidly generate DNA donor plasmids to efficiently introduce DNA sequences encoding for fluorescent proteins at the 5′ and 3′ ends of gene coding regions. With regard to homology‐directed repair experiments, we found that if the protospacer sequence remains on the DNA donor plasmid, then Cas9 cleaves the plasmid target as well as the genomic target. This can reduce the efficiency of introducing sequences into the genome. Furthermore, to ensure the generation of a null allele near the Cas9 cleavage site, we generated a homology plasmid harboring a “stop codon cassette” with downstream near‐effortless genotyping.

     
    more » « less