High-resolution reconstruction of spatial chromosome organizations from chromatin contact maps is highly demanded, but is hindered by extensive pairwise constraints, substantial missing data, and limited resolution and cell-type availabilities. Here, we present FLAMINGO, a computational method that addresses these challenges by compressing inter-dependent Hi-C interactions to delineate the underlying low-rank structures in 3D space, based on the low-rank matrix completion technique. FLAMINGO successfully generates 5 kb- and 1 kb-resolution spatial conformations for all chromosomes in the human genome across multiple cell-types, the largest resources to date. Compared to other methods using various experimental metrics, FLAMINGO consistently demonstrates superior accuracy in recapitulating observed structures with raises in scalability by orders of magnitude. The reconstructed 3D structures efficiently facilitate discoveries of higher-order multi-way interactions, imply biological interpretations of long-range QTLs, reveal geometrical properties of chromatin, and provide high-resolution references to understand structural variabilities. Importantly, FLAMINGO achieves robust predictions against high rates of missing data and significantly boosts 3D structure resolutions. Moreover, FLAMINGO shows vigorous cross cell-type structure predictions that capture cell-type specific spatial configurations via integration of 1D epigenomic signals. FLAMINGO can be widely applied to large-scale chromatin contact maps and expand high-resolution spatial genome conformations for diverse cell-types.
- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Nucleic Acids Research
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- e123 to e123
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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The structure and dynamics of the eukaryotic genome are intimately linked to gene regulation and transcriptional activity. Many chromosome conformation capture experiments like Hi-C have been developed to detect genome-wide contact frequencies and quantify loop/compartment structures for different cellular contexts and time-dependent processes. However, a full understanding of these events requires explicit descriptions of representative chromatin and chromosome configurations. With the exponentially growing amount of data from Hi-C experiments, many methods for deriving 3D structures from contact frequency data have been developed. Yet, most reconstruction methods use polymer models with low resolution to predict overall genome structure. Here we present a Brownian Dynamics (BD) approach termed Hi-BDiSCO for producing 3D genome structures from Hi-C and Micro-C data using our mesoscale-resolution chromatin model based on the Discrete Surface Charge Optimization (DiSCO) model. Our approach integrates reconstruction with chromatin simulations at nucleosome resolution with appropriate biophysical parameters. Following a description of our protocol, we present applications to the NXN, HOXC, HOXA and Fbn2 mouse genes ranging in size from 50 to 100 kb. Such nucleosome-resolution genome structures pave the way for pursuing many biomedical applications related to the epigenomic regulation of chromatin and control of human disease.
High throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) contact matrices are used to predict 3D chromatin structures in eukaryotic cells. High-resolution Hi-C data are less available than low-resolution Hi-C data due to sequencing costs but provide greater insight into the intricate details of 3D chromatin structures such as enhancer–promoter interactions and sub-domains. To provide a cost-effective solution to high-resolution Hi-C data collection, deep learning models are used to predict high-resolution Hi-C matrices from existing low-resolution matrices across multiple cell types.
Here, we present two Cascading Residual Networks called HiCARN-1 and HiCARN-2, a convolutional neural network and a generative adversarial network, that use a novel framework of cascading connections throughout the network for Hi-C contact matrix prediction from low-resolution data. Shown by image evaluation and Hi-C reproducibility metrics, both HiCARN models, overall, outperform state-of-the-art Hi-C resolution enhancement algorithms in predictive accuracy for both human and mouse 1/16, 1/32, 1/64 and 1/100 downsampled high-resolution Hi-C data. Also, validation by extracting topologically associating domains, chromosome 3D structure and chromatin loop predictions from the enhanced data shows that HiCARN can proficiently reconstruct biologically significant regions.
Availability and implementation
HiCARN can be accessed and utilized as an open-sourced software at: https://github.com/OluwadareLab/HiCARN and is also available as a containerized application that can be run on any platform.
Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
A gene may be controlled by distal enhancers and repressors, not merely by regulatory elements in its promoter. Spatial organization of chromosomes is the mechanism that brings genes and their distal regulatory elements into close proximity. Recent molecular techniques, coupled with Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology, enable genome-wide detection of physical contacts between distant genomic loci. In particular, Hi-C is an NGS-aided assay for the study of genome-wide spatial interactions. The availability of such data makes it possible to reconstruct the underlying three-dimensional (3D) spatial chromatin structure. In this article, we present the Poisson Random effect Architecture Model (PRAM) for such an inference. The main feature of PRAM that separates it from previous methods is that it addresses the issue of over-dispersion and takes correlations among contact counts into consideration, thereby achieving greater consistency with observed data. PRAM was applied to Hi-C data to illustrate its performance and to compare the predicted distances with those measured by a Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) validation experiment. Further, PRAM was compared to other methods in the literature based on both real and simulated data.
High-throughput conformation capture experiments, such as Hi-C provide genome-wide maps of chromatin interactions, enabling life scientists to investigate the role of the three-dimensional structure of genomes in gene regulation and other essential cellular functions. A fundamental problem in the analysis of Hi-C data is how to compare two contact maps derived from Hi-C experiments. Detecting similarities and differences between contact maps are critical in evaluating the reproducibility of replicate experiments and for identifying differential genomic regions with biological significance. Due to the complexity of chromatin conformations and the presence of technology-driven and sequence-specific biases, the comparative analysis of Hi-C data is analytically and computationally challenging.
We present a novel method called Selfish for the comparative analysis of Hi-C data that takes advantage of the structural self-similarity in contact maps. We define a novel self-similarity measure to design algorithms for (i) measuring reproducibility for Hi-C replicate experiments and (ii) finding differential chromatin interactions between two contact maps. Extensive experimental results on simulated and real data show that Selfish is more accurate and robust than state-of-the-art methods.
Availability and implementation