skip to main content

Title: Magnetic properties and spin reorientation of hexagonal HoFeO3 thin films
We present structural, magnetic, and optical properties of hexagonal HoFeO3/Al2O3 thin films deposited by Magnetron Sputtering. The x-ray diffraction patterns of HoFeO3 thin films show the c-planes of a hexagonal structure. The magnetization data display an antiferromagnetic transition temperature, TN∼120 ± 5 K and the magnetization-field hysteresis loops were measured below 100 K, confirming a weak ferromagnetism arising from a spin canting of the Fe3+ moments. The magnetization data also show an anomaly around ∼40 K due to a spin-reorientation transition caused by the Ho3+- Fe3+ interactions. We observed comparable magnetization along the ab plane and c axis although the spin canting of Fe3+ sites has a preferential component along the c axis, suggesting that the Ho3+- Fe3+ interactions dominate in the low temperature magnetic structures of hexagonal-HoFeO3. The observed electronic excitations at ∼2.29, 2.87, 3.82, 4.79, and 6.53 eV have been assigned to the Fe3+ d to d on-site as well as O 2p to Fe 3d, Ho 6s, and 5d charge-transfer excitations, respectively. The room temperature energy band gap of the hexagonal-HoFeO3 thin film was measured to be ∼1.99 ± 0.04 eV.
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Thin solid films
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    La0.7Sr0.3MnO3, a strong semi-metallic ferromagnet having robust spin polarization and magnetic transition temperature (TC) well above 300 K, has attracted significant attention as a possible candidate for a wide range of memory, spintronic, and multifunctional devices. Since varying the oxygen partial pressure during growth is likely to change the structural and other physical functionalities of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3(LSMO) films, here we report detailed investigations on structure, along with magnetic behavior of LSMO films with same thickness (~30 nm) but synthesized at various oxygen partial pressures: 10, 30, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mTorr. The observation of only (00l) reflections without any secondary peaks in the XRD patterns confirms the high-quality synthesis of the above-mentioned films. Surface morphology of the films reveals that these films are very smooth with low roughness, the thin films synthesized at 150 mTorr having the lowest average roughness. The increasing of magneticTCand sharpness of the magnetic phase transitions with increasing oxygen growth pressure suggests that by decreasing the oxygen growth pressure leads to oxygen deficiencies in grown films which induce oxygen inhomogeneity. Thin films grown at 150 mTorr exhibits the highest magnetization withTC = 340 K as these thin films possess the lowest roughness and might exhibit lowest oxygen vacancies andmore »defects. Interpretation and significance of these results in the 30 nm LSMO thin films prepared at different oxygen growth pressures are also presented, along with the existence and growth pressure dependence of negative remanent magnetization (NRM) of the above-mentioned thin films.

    « less
  2. Abstract

    This report is on the observation and theory of electric fieldEinduced non-linear magnetoelectric (NLME) effects in single crystal platelets of ferrimagnetic M-type strontium aluminum hexagonal ferrite. Using microwave measurement techniques, it was found that a DC electric field along the hexagonal c-axis results in significant changes in the saturation magnetization and uniaxial magneto-crystalline anisotropy field and these changes are proportional to the square of the applied static electric field. The NLME effects were present with or without an external bias magnetic field. TheE-induced variation in magnetic order parameters is attributed to weakening of magnetic exchange and spin–orbit interactions since conduction electrons in the ferrite are effectively excluded from both interactions while being in transit from one Fe ion to another. We present a phenomenological theory which considers magneto-bielectric effects characterized by a quadratic term in electric fieldEin the free energy density. The coefficients for the NLME coupling terms have been calculated from experimental data and they do show variations with the Al substitution level and the largest rates of change of the saturation magnetization and anisotropy constant change with the applied power were observed for x = 0.4. It was also clear from the study that strength of the NLME effectmore »does not depend on the amount Al substitution, but critically depends on the electrical conductivity of the sample with the highest NLME coefficients estimated for the sample with the highest conductivity. Results of this work are of importance for a new family of electric field tunable, miniature, high frequency ferrite devices.

    « less
  3. Iron-based extended metal atom chains (EMACs) are potentially high-spin molecules with axial magnetic anisotropy and thus candidate single-molecule magnets (SMMs). We herein compare the tetrairon( ii ), halide-capped complexes [Fe 4 (tpda) 3 Cl 2 ] ( 1Cl ) and [Fe 4 (tpda) 3 Br 2 ] ( 1Br ), obtained by reacting iron( ii ) dihalides with [Fe 2 (Mes) 4 ] and N 2 , N 6 -di(pyridin-2-yl)pyridine-2,6-diamine (H 2 tpda) in toluene, under strictly anhydrous and anaerobic conditions (HMes = mesitylene). Detailed structural, electrochemical and Mössbauer data are presented along with direct-current (DC) and alternating-current (AC) magnetic characterizations. DC measurements revealed similar static magnetic properties for the two derivatives, with χ M T at room temperature above that for independent spin carriers, but much lower at low temperature. The electronic structure of the iron( ii ) ions in each derivative was explored by ab initio (CASSCF-NEVPT2-SO) calculations, which showed that the main magnetic axis of all metals is directed close to the axis of the chain. The outer metals, Fe1 and Fe4, have an easy-axis magnetic anisotropy ( D = −11 to −19 cm −1 , | E / D | = 0.05–0.18), while the internal metals,more »Fe2 and Fe3, possess weaker hard-axis anisotropy ( D = 8–10 cm −1 , | E / D | = 0.06–0.21). These single-ion parameters were held constant in the fitting of DC magnetic data, which revealed ferromagnetic Fe1–Fe2 and Fe3–Fe4 interactions and antiferromagnetic Fe2–Fe3 coupling. The competition between super-exchange interactions and the large, noncollinear anisotropies at metal sites results in a weakly magnetic non-Kramers doublet ground state. This explains the SMM behavior displayed by both derivatives in the AC susceptibility data, with slow magnetic relaxation in 1Br being observable even in zero static field.« less
  4. Abstract With the motivation to study how non-magnetic ion site disorder affects the quantum magnetism of Ba 3 CoSb 2 O 9 , a spin-1/2 equilateral triangular lattice antiferromagnet, we performed DC and AC susceptibility, specific heat, elastic and inelastic neutron scattering measurements on single crystalline samples of Ba 2.87 Sr 0.13 CoSb 2 O 9 with Sr doping on non-magnetic Ba 2+ ion sites. The results show that Ba 2.87 Sr 0.13 CoSb 2 O 9 exhibits (i) a two-step magnetic transition at 2.7 K and 3.3 K, respectively; (ii) a possible canted 120 degree spin structure at zero field with reduced ordered moment as 1.24 μ B /Co; (iii) a series of spin state transitions for both H ∥ ab -plane and H ∥ c -axis. For H ∥ ab -plane, the magnetization plateau feature related to the up–up–down phase is significantly suppressed; (iv) an inelastic neutron scattering spectrum with only one gapped mode at zero field, which splits to one gapless and one gapped mode at 9 T. All these features are distinctly different from those observed for the parent compound Ba 3 CoSb 2 O 9 , which demonstrates that the non-magnetic ion site disorder (the Sr doping) playsmore »a complex role on the magnetic properties beyond the conventionally expected randomization of the exchange interactions. We propose the additional effects including the enhancement of quantum spin fluctuations and introduction of a possible spatial anisotropy through the local structural distortions.« less
  5. Abstract Multi-functional thin films of boron (B) doped Cr 2 O 3 exhibit voltage-controlled and nonvolatile Néel vector reorientation in the absence of an applied magnetic field, H . Toggling of antiferromagnetic states is demonstrated in prototype device structures at CMOS compatible temperatures between 300 and 400 K. The boundary magnetization associated with the Néel vector orientation serves as state variable which is read via magnetoresistive detection in a Pt Hall bar adjacent to the B:Cr 2 O 3 film. Switching of the Hall voltage between zero and non-zero values implies Néel vector rotation by 90 degrees. Combined magnetometry, spin resolved inverse photoemission, electric transport and scanning probe microscopy measurements reveal B-dependent T N and resistivity enhancement, spin-canting, anisotropy reduction, dynamic polarization hysteresis and gate voltage dependent orientation of boundary magnetization. The combined effect enables H  = 0, voltage controlled, nonvolatile Néel vector rotation at high-temperature. Theoretical modeling estimates switching speeds of about 100 ps making B:Cr 2 O 3 a promising multifunctional single-phase material for energy efficient nonvolatile CMOS compatible memory applications.