skip to main content

Title: Applicability of 3D Spectral Element Method for Computing Close-Range Underwater Piling Noises
Pile driving is used for constructing foundation supports for offshore structures. Underwater noise, induced by in-water pile driving, could adversely impact marine life near the piling location. Many studies have computed this noise in close ranges by using semi-analytical models and Finite Element Method (FEM) models. This work presents a Spectral Element Method (SEM) wave simulator as an alternative simulation tool to obtain close-range underwater piling noise in complex, fully three-dimensional, axially-asymmetric settings in the time domain for impacting force signals with high-frequency contents (e.g., frequencies greater than 1000[Formula: see text]Hz). The presented numerical results show that the flexibility of SEM can accommodate the axially-asymmetric geometry of a model, its heterogeneity, and fluid-solid coupling. We showed that there are multiple Mach Cones of different angles in fluid and sediment caused by the difference in wave speeds in fluid, a pile, and sediment. The angles of Mach Cones in our numerical results match those that are theoretically evaluated. A previous work 18 had shown that Mach Cone waves lead to intense amplitudes of underwater piling noise via a FEM simulation in an axis-symmetric setting. Since it modeled sediment as fluid with a larger wave speed than that of water, we examined if our SEM simulation, using solid sediment–fluid coupling, leads to additional Mach Cones. Because this work computes the shear wave in sediment and the downward-propagating shear wave in a pile, we present six Mach Cones in fluid and sediment induced by downward-propagating P- and S-waves in a pile in lieu of two previously-reported Mach Cones in fluid and sediment (modeled as fluid) induced by a downward-propagating P-wave in a pile. We also showed that the amplitudes of the close-range underwater noise are dependent on the cross-sectional geometry of a pile. In addition, when a pile is surrounded by a solid of an axially-asymmetric geometry, waves are reflected from the surface of the surrounding solid back to the fluid so that constructive and destructive interferences of waves take place in the fluid and affect the amplitude of the underwater piling noise.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2044887 1855406
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Theoretical and Computational Acoustics
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    In shallow coastal oceans, turbulent flows driven by surface winds and waves and constrained by a solid bottom disperse particles. This work examines the mechanisms driving horizontal and vertical dispersion of buoyant and sinking particles for times much greater than turbulent integral time scales. Turbulent fields are modeled using a wind‐stress driven large eddy simulation (LES), incorporating wave‐driven Langmuir turbulence, surface breaking wave turbulent kinetic energy inputs, and a solid bottom boundary. A Lagrangian stochastic model is paired to the LES to incorporate Lagrangian particle tracking. Within a subset of intermediate buoyant rise velocities, particles experience synergistic vertical mixing in which breaking waves (BW) inject particles into Langmuir downwelling velocities sufficient to drive deep mixing. Along‐wind dispersion is controlled by vertical shear in mean along‐wind velocities. Wind and bottom friction‐driven vertical shear enhances dispersion of buoyant and sinking particles, while energetic turbulent mixing, such as from BW, dampens shear dispersion. Strongly rising and sinking particles trapped at the ocean surface and bottom, respectively, experience no vertical shear, resulting in low rates of along‐wind dispersion. Crosswind dispersion is shaped by particle advection in wind‐aligned fields of counter‐rotating Langmuir and Couette roll cells. Langmuir cells enhance crosswind dispersion in neutrally to intermediately buoyant particles through enhanced cell hopping. Surface trapping restricts particles to Langmuir convergence regions, strongly inhibiting crosswind dispersion. In shallow coastal systems, particle dispersion depends heavily on particle buoyancy and wave‐dependent turbulent effects.

    more » « less
  2. ABSTRACT Seismic waves can couple with the atmosphere and generate sound waves. The influence of faulting mechanisms on earthquake sound patterns provides opportunities for earthquake source characterization. Sound radiated from earthquakes can be perceived as disturbing, even at low ground-shaking levels, which can negatively impact the social acceptance of geoengineering applications. Motivated by consistent reports of felt and heard disturbances associated with the weeks-long stimulation of a 6-km-deep geothermal system in 2018 below the Otaniemi district of Espoo, Helsinki, we conduct fully coupled 3D numerical simulations of wave propagation in the solid Earth and the atmosphere. We assess the sensitivity of the ground shaking and audible noise distributions to the source geometry of the induced earthquakes based on the properties of the largest local magnitude ML 1.8 event. Utilizing recent computational advances and the open-source software SeisSol, we model seismoacoustic frequencies up to 25 Hz, thereby reaching the lower limit of the human audible sound frequency range. We present synthetic distributions of shaking and audible sounds at the 50–100 m scale across a 12 km × 12 km area and discuss implications for better understanding seismic nuisances in metropolitan regions. In five 3D coupled elastic–acoustic scenario simulations that include data on topography and subsurface structure, we analyze the ground velocity and pressure levels of earthquake-generated seismic and acoustic waves. We show that S waves generate the strongest sound disturbance with sound pressure levels ≤0.04 Pa. We use statistical analysis to compare our noise distributions with commonly used empirical relationships. We find that our 3D synthetic amplitudes are generally smaller than the empirical predictions and that the interaction of the source mechanism-specific radiation pattern and topography can lead to significant nonlinear effects. Our study highlights the complexity and information content of spatially variable audible effects associated with small induced earthquakes on local scales. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    The coupled dynamics of turbulent airflow and a spectrum of waves are known to modify air–sea momentum and scalar fluxes. Waves traveling at oblique angles to the wind are common in the open ocean, and their effects may be especially relevant when constraining fluxes in storm and tropical cyclone conditions. In this study, we employ large-eddy simulation for airflow over steep, strongly forced waves following and opposing oblique wind to elucidate its impacts on the wind speed magnitude and direction, drag coefficient, and wave growth/decay rate. We find that oblique wind maintains a signature of airflow separation while introducing a cross-wave component strongly modified by the waves. The directions of mean wind speed and mean wind shear vary significantly with height and are misaligned from the wind stress direction, particularly toward the surface. As the oblique angle increases, the wave form drag remains positive, but the wave impact on the equivalent surface roughness (drag coefficient) rapidly decreases and becomes negative at large angles. Our findings have significant implications for how the sea-state-dependent drag coefficient is parameterized in forecast models. Our results also suggest that wind speed and wind stress measurements performed on a wave-following platform can be strongly contaminated by the platform motion if the instrument is inside the wave boundary layer of dominant waves.

    Significance Statement

    Surface waves increase friction at the sea surface and modify how wind forces upper-ocean currents and turbulence. Therefore, it is important to include effects of different wave conditions in weather and climate forecasts. We aim to inform more accurate forecasts by investigating wind blowing over waves propagating in oblique directions using large-eddy simulation. We find that waves traveling at a 45° angle or larger to the wind grow as expected, but do not increase or even decrease the surface friction felt by the wind—a surprising result that has significant implications for how oblique wind-waves are represented as a source of surface friction in forecast models.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Four state-of-the-science numerical weather prediction (NWP) models were used to perform mountain wave (MW)-resolving hindcasts over the Drake Passage of a 10-day period in 2010 with numerous observed MW cases. The Integrated Forecast System (IFS) and the Icosahedral Nonhydrostatic (ICON) model were run at Δx≈ 9 and 13 km globally. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model and the Met Office Unified Model (UM) were both configured with a Δx= 3-km regional domain. All domains had tops near 1 Pa (z≈ 80 km). These deep domains allowedquantitativevalidation against Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations, accounting for observation time, viewing geometry, and radiative transfer. All models reproduced observed middle-atmosphere MWs with remarkable skill. Increased horizontal resolution improved validations. Still, all models underrepresented observed MW amplitudes, even after accounting for model effective resolution and instrument noise, suggesting even at Δx≈ 3-km resolution, small-scale MWs are underresolved and/or overdiffused. MW drag parameterizations are still necessary in NWP models at current operational resolutions of Δx≈ 10 km. Upper GW sponge layers in the operationally configured models significantly, artificially reduced MW amplitudes in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. In the IFS, parameterized GW drags partly compensated this deficiency, but still, total drags were ≈6 times smaller than that resolved at Δx≈ 3 km. Meridionally propagating MWs significantly enhance zonal drag over the Drake Passage. Interestingly, drag associated with meridional fluxes of zonal momentum (i.e.,) were important; not accounting for these terms results in a drag in the wrong direction at and below the polar night jet.

    Significance Statement

    This study had three purposes: to quantitatively evaluate how well four state-of-the-science weather models could reproduce observed mountain waves (MWs) in the middle atmosphere, to compare the simulated MWs within the models, and to quantitatively evaluate two MW parameterizations in a widely used climate model. These models reproduced observed MWs with remarkable skill. Still, MW parameterizations are necessary in current Δx≈ 10-km resolution global weather models. Even Δx≈ 3-km resolution does not appear to be high enough to represent all momentum-fluxing MW scales. Meridionally propagating MWs can significantly influence zonal winds over the Drake Passage. Parameterizations that handle horizontal propagation may need to consider horizontal fluxes of horizontal momentum in order to get the direction of their forcing correct.

    more » « less
  5. This paper addresses peristaltic flow induced in a non-axisymmetric annular tube by a periodic small-amplitude wave of arbitrary shape propagating axially along its inner surface, assumed to be a circular cylinder. The study is motivated by recent in vivo experimental observations pertaining to the flow of cerebrospinal fluid along the perivascular spaces of cerebral arteries. The analysis employs the lubrication approximation, describing low-Reynolds-number peristaltic flow in the long-wavelength approximation. Closed-form analytic expressions are derived for the average pumping rate in infinitely long tubes and also in tubes of finite length. Consideration is also given to the transverse motion arising in non-axisymmetric tubes. For small-amplitude waves, the solution is reduced to the integration of a parameter-free Stokes-flow problem, which is solved for relevant cross-sectional shapes, with closed-form analytical results derived for thin canals. 
    more » « less