skip to main content


Title: Open Graph Benchmark: Datasets for Machine Learning on Graphs
We present the OPEN GRAPH BENCHMARK (OGB), a diverse set of challenging and realistic benchmark datasets to facilitate scalable, robust, and reproducible graph machine learning (ML) research. OGB datasets are large-scale, encompass multiple important graph ML tasks, and cover a diverse range of domains, ranging from social and information networks to biological networks, molecular graphs, source code ASTs, and knowledge graphs. For each dataset, we provide a unified evaluation protocol using meaningful application-specific data splits and evaluation metrics. In addition to building the datasets, we also perform extensive benchmark experiments for each dataset. Our experiments suggest that OGB datasets present significant challenges of scalability to large-scale graphs and out-of-distribution generalization under realistic data splits, indicating fruitful opportunities for future research. Finally, OGB provides an automated end-to-end graph ML pipeline that simplifies and standardizes the process of graph data loading, experimental setup, and model evaluation. OGB will be regularly updated and welcomes inputs from the community. OGB datasets as well as data loaders, evaluation scripts, baseline code, and leaderboards are publicly available at https://ogb.stanford.edu.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1918940 1835598
NSF-PAR ID:
10219024
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Neural Information Processing Systems (NeurIPS)
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. We present the Temporal Graph Benchmark (TGB), a collection of challenging and diverse benchmark datasets for realistic, reproducible, and robust evaluation of machine learning models on temporal graphs. TGB datasets are of large scale, spanning years in duration, incorporate both node and edge-level prediction tasks and cover a diverse set of domains including social, trade, transaction, and transportation networks. For both tasks, we design evaluation protocols based on realistic use-cases. We extensively benchmark each dataset and find that the performance of common models can vary drastically across datasets. In addition, on dynamic node property prediction tasks, we show that simple methods often achieve superior performance compared to existing temporal graph models. We believe that these findings open up opportunities for future research on temporal graphs. Finally, TGB provides an automated machine learning pipeline for reproducible and accessible temporal graph research, including data loading, experiment setup and performance evaluation. TGB will be maintained and updated on a regular basis and welcomes community feedback. TGB datasets, data loaders, example codes, evaluation setup, and leaderboards are publicly available at https://tgb.complexdatalab.com/. 
    more » « less
  2. Enabling effective and efficient machine learning (ML) over large-scale graph data (e.g., graphs with billions of edges) can have a great impact on both industrial and scientific applications. However, existing efforts to advance large-scale graph ML have been largely limited by the lack of a suitable public benchmark. Here we present OGB Large-Scale Challenge (OGB-LSC), a collection of three real-world datasets for facilitating the advancements in large-scale graph ML. The OGB-LSC datasets are orders of magnitude larger than existing ones, covering three core graph learning tasks—link prediction, graph regression, and node classification. Furthermore, we provide dedicated baseline experiments, scaling up expressive graph ML models to the massive datasets. We show that expressive models significantly outperform simple scalable baselines, indicating an opportunity for dedicated efforts to further improve graph ML at scale. Moreover, OGB-LSC datasets were deployed at ACM KDD Cup 2021 and attracted more than 500 team registrations globally, during which significant performance improvements were made by a variety of innovative techniques. We summarize the common techniques used by the winning solutions and highlight the current best practices in large-scale graph ML. Finally, we describe how we have updated the datasets after the KDD Cup to further facilitate research advances. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    In real-world materials research, machine learning (ML) models are usually expected to predict and discover novel exceptional materials that deviate from the known materials. It is thus a pressing question to provide an objective evaluation of ML model performances in property prediction of out-of-distribution (OOD) materials that are different from the training set. Traditional performance evaluation of materials property prediction models through the random splitting of the dataset frequently results in artificially high-performance assessments due to the inherent redundancy of typical material datasets. Here we present a comprehensive benchmark study of structure-based graph neural networks (GNNs) for extrapolative OOD materials property prediction. We formulate five different categories of OOD ML problems for three benchmark datasets from the MatBench study. Our extensive experiments show that current state-of-the-art GNN algorithms significantly underperform for the OOD property prediction tasks on average compared to their baselines in the MatBench study, demonstrating a crucial generalization gap in realistic material prediction tasks. We further examine the latent physical spaces of these GNN models and identify the sources of CGCNN, ALIGNN, and DeeperGATGNN’s significantly more robust OOD performance than those of the current best models in the MatBench study (coGN and coNGN) as a case study for the perovskites dataset, and provide insights to improve their performance.

     
    more » « less
  4. Accelerating the development of π-conjugated molecules for applications such as energy generation and storage, catalysis, sensing, pharmaceuticals, and (semi)conducting technologies requires rapid and accurate evaluation of the electronic, redox, or optical properties. While high-throughput computational screening has proven to be a tremendous aid in this regard, machine learning (ML) and other data-driven methods can further enable orders of magnitude reduction in time while at the same time providing dramatic increases in the chemical space that is explored. However, the lack of benchmark datasets containing the electronic, redox, and optical properties that characterize the diverse, known chemical space of organic π-conjugated molecules limits ML model development. Here, we present a curated dataset containing 25k molecules with density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) evaluated properties that include frontier molecular orbitals, ionization energies, relaxation energies, and low-lying optical excitation energies. Using the dataset, we train a hierarchy of ML models, ranging from classical models such as ridge regression to sophisticated graph neural networks, with molecular SMILES representation as input. We observe that graph neural networks augmented with contextual information allow for significantly better predictions across a wide array of properties. Our best-performing models also provide an uncertainty quantification for the predictions. To democratize access to the data and trained models, an interactive web platform has been developed and deployed. 
    more » « less
  5. The ability to estimate the 3D human shape and pose from images can be useful in many contexts. Recent approaches have explored using graph convolutional networks and achieved promising results. The fact that the 3D shape is represented by a mesh, an undirected graph, makes graph convolutional networks a natural fit for this problem. However, graph convolutional networks have limited representation power Information from nodes in the graph is passed to connected neighbors, and propagation of information requires successive graph convolutions. To overcome this limitation, we propose a dual-scale graph approach. We use a coarse graph, derived from a dense graph, to estimate the human’s 3D pose, and the dense graph to estimate the 3D shape. Information in coarse graphs can be propagated over longer distances compared to dense graphs. In addition, information about pose can guide to recover local shape detail and vice versa. We recognize that the connection between coarse and dense is itself a graph, and introduce graph fusion blocks to exchange information between graphs with different scales. We train our model end-to-end and show that we can achieve state-of-the-art results for several evaluation datasets. The code is available at the following link, https://github.com/yuxwind/BiGraphBody. 
    more » « less