Title: A Unified Proof of Conjectures on Cycle Lengths in Graphs

Abstract In this paper, we prove a tight minimum degree condition in general graphs for the existence of paths between two given endpoints whose lengths form a long arithmetic progression with common difference one or two. This allows us to obtain a number of exact and optimal results on cycle lengths in graphs of given minimum degree, connectivity or chromatic number. More precisely, we prove the following statements by a unified approach: 1. Every graph $G$ with minimum degree at least $k+1$ contains cycles of all even lengths modulo $k$; in addition, if $G$ is $2$-connected and non-bipartite, then it contains cycles of all lengths modulo $k$. 2. For all $k\geq 3$, every $k$-connected graph contains a cycle of length zero modulo $k$. 3. Every $3$-connected non-bipartite graph with minimum degree at least $k+1$ contains $k$ cycles of consecutive lengths. 4. Every graph with chromatic number at least $k+2$ contains $k$ cycles of consecutive lengths. The 1st statement is a conjecture of Thomassen, the 2nd is a conjecture of Dean, the 3rd is a tight answer to a question of Bondy and Vince, and the 4th is a conjecture of Sudakov and Verstraëte. All of the above results are best possible. more »« less

A graph is ‐freeif it has no induced subgraph isomorphic to , and |G| denotes the number of vertices of . A conjecture of Conlon, Sudakov and the second author asserts that:

For every graph , there exists such that in every ‐free graph with |G| there are two disjoint sets of vertices, of sizes at least and , complete or anticomplete to each other.

This is equivalent to:

The “sparse linear conjecture”: For every graph , there exists such that in every ‐free graph with , either some vertex has degree at least , or there are two disjoint sets of vertices, of sizes at least and , anticomplete to each other.

We prove a number of partial results toward the sparse linear conjecture. In particular, we prove it holds for a large class of graphs , and we prove that something like it holds for all graphs . More exactly, say is “almost‐bipartite” if is triangle‐free and can be partitioned into a stable set and a set inducing a graph of maximum degree at most one. (This includes all graphs that arise from another graph by subdividing every edge at least once.) Our main result is:

The sparse linear conjecture holds for all almost‐bipartite graphs .

(It remains open when is the triangle .) There is also a stronger theorem:

For every almost‐bipartite graph , there exist such that for every graph with and maximum degree less than , and for every with , either contains induced copies of , or there are two disjoint sets with and , and with at most edges between them.

We also prove some variations on the sparse linear conjecture, such as:

For every graph , there exists such that in every ‐free graph with vertices, either some vertex has degree at least , or there are two disjoint sets of vertices with , anticomplete to each other.

DP‐coloring (also known as correspondence coloring) is a generalization of list coloring developed recently by Dvořák and Postle [J. Combin. Theory Ser. B 129 (2018), pp. 38–54]. In this paper we introduce and study the fractional DP‐chromatic number . We characterize all connected graphs such that : they are precisely the graphs with no odd cycles and at most one even cycle. By a theorem of Alon, Tuza, and Voigt [Discrete Math. 165–166 (1997), pp. 31–38], the fractional list‐chromatic number of any graph equals its fractional chromatic number . This equality does not extend to fractional DP‐colorings. Moreover, we show that the difference can be arbitrarily large, and, furthermore, for every graph of maximum average degree . On the other hand, we show that this asymptotic lower bound is tight for a large class of graphs that includes all bipartite graphs as well as many graphs of high girth and high chromatic number.

Ergemlidze, Beka; Molla, Theodore(
, Combinatorics, Probability and Computing)

Abstract

For a subgraph$G$of the blow-up of a graph$F$, we let$\delta ^*(G)$be the smallest minimum degree over all of the bipartite subgraphs of$G$induced by pairs of parts that correspond to edges of$F$. Johansson proved that if$G$is a spanning subgraph of the blow-up of$C_3$with parts of size$n$and$\delta ^*(G) \ge \frac{2}{3}n + \sqrt{n}$, then$G$contains$n$vertex disjoint triangles, and presented the following conjecture of Häggkvist. If$G$is a spanning subgraph of the blow-up of$C_k$with parts of size$n$and$\delta ^*(G) \ge \left(1 + \frac 1k\right)\frac n2 + 1$, then$G$contains$n$vertex disjoint copies of$C_k$such that each$C_k$intersects each of the$k$parts exactly once. A similar conjecture was also made by Fischer and the case$k=3$was proved for large$n$by Magyar and Martin.

In this paper, we prove the conjecture of Häggkvist asymptotically. We also pose a conjecture which generalises this result by allowing the minimum degree conditions in each bipartite subgraph induced by pairs of parts of$G$to vary. We support this new conjecture by proving the triangle case. This result generalises Johannson’s result asymptotically.

Falgas-Ravry, Victor; Markström, Klas; Zhao, Yi(
, Combinatorics, Probability and Computing)

null
(Ed.)

Abstract We investigate a covering problem in 3-uniform hypergraphs (3-graphs): Given a 3-graph F , what is c 1 ( n , F ), the least integer d such that if G is an n -vertex 3-graph with minimum vertex-degree $\delta_1(G)>d$ then every vertex of G is contained in a copy of F in G ? We asymptotically determine c 1 ( n , F ) when F is the generalized triangle $K_4^{(3)-}$ , and we give close to optimal bounds in the case where F is the tetrahedron $K_4^{(3)}$ (the complete 3-graph on 4 vertices). This latter problem turns out to be a special instance of the following problem for graphs: Given an n -vertex graph G with $m> n^2/4$ edges, what is the largest t such that some vertex in G must be contained in t triangles? We give upper bound constructions for this problem that we conjecture are asymptotically tight. We prove our conjecture for tripartite graphs, and use flag algebra computations to give some evidence of its truth in the general case.

One of the most intruguing conjectures in extremal graph theory is the conjecture of Erdős and Sós from 1962, which asserts that every $n$-vertex graph with more than $\frac{k-1}{2}n$ edges contains any $k$-edge tree as a subgraph. Kalai proposed a generalization of this conjecture to hypergraphs. To explain the generalization, we need to define the concept of a tight tree in an $r$-uniform hypergraph, i.e., a hypergraph where each edge contains $r$ vertices. A tight tree is an $r$-uniform hypergraph such that there is an ordering $v_1,\ldots,v_n$ of its its vertices with the following property: the vertices $v_1,\ldots,v_r$ form an edge and for every $i>r$, there is a single edge $e$ containing the vertex $v_i$ and $r-1$ of the vertices $v_1,\ldots,v_{i-1}$, and $e\setminus\{v_i\}$ is a subset of one of the edges consisting only of vertices from $v_1,\ldots,v_{i-1}$. The conjecture of Kalai asserts that every $n$-vertex $r$-uniform hypergraph with more than $\frac{k-1}{r}\binom{n}{r-1}$ edges contains every $k$-edge tight tree as a subhypergraph. The recent breakthrough results on the existence of combinatorial designs by Keevash and by Glock, Kühn, Lo and Osthus show that this conjecture, if true, would be tight for infinitely many values of $n$ for every $r$ and $k$.The article deals with the special case of the conjecture when the sought tight tree is a path, i.e., the edges are the $r$-tuples of consecutive vertices in the above ordering. The case $r=2$ is the famous Erdős-Gallai theorem on the existence of paths in graphs. The case $r=3$ and $k=4$ follows from an earlier work of the authors on the conjecture of Kalai. The main result of the article is the first non-trivial upper bound valid for all $r$ and $k$. The proof is based on techniques developed for a closely related problem where a hypergraph comes with a geometric structure: the vertices are points in the plane in a strictly convex position and the sought path has to zigzag beetwen the vertices.

Gao, Jun, Huo, Qingyi, Liu, Chun-Hung, and Ma, Jie. A Unified Proof of Conjectures on Cycle Lengths in Graphs. Retrieved from https://par.nsf.gov/biblio/10219091. International Mathematics Research Notices . Web. doi:10.1093/imrn/rnaa324.

Gao, Jun, Huo, Qingyi, Liu, Chun-Hung, & Ma, Jie. A Unified Proof of Conjectures on Cycle Lengths in Graphs. International Mathematics Research Notices, (). Retrieved from https://par.nsf.gov/biblio/10219091. https://doi.org/10.1093/imrn/rnaa324

@article{osti_10219091,
place = {Country unknown/Code not available},
title = {A Unified Proof of Conjectures on Cycle Lengths in Graphs},
url = {https://par.nsf.gov/biblio/10219091},
DOI = {10.1093/imrn/rnaa324},
abstractNote = {Abstract In this paper, we prove a tight minimum degree condition in general graphs for the existence of paths between two given endpoints whose lengths form a long arithmetic progression with common difference one or two. This allows us to obtain a number of exact and optimal results on cycle lengths in graphs of given minimum degree, connectivity or chromatic number. More precisely, we prove the following statements by a unified approach: 1. Every graph $G$ with minimum degree at least $k+1$ contains cycles of all even lengths modulo $k$; in addition, if $G$ is $2$-connected and non-bipartite, then it contains cycles of all lengths modulo $k$. 2. For all $k\geq 3$, every $k$-connected graph contains a cycle of length zero modulo $k$. 3. Every $3$-connected non-bipartite graph with minimum degree at least $k+1$ contains $k$ cycles of consecutive lengths. 4. Every graph with chromatic number at least $k+2$ contains $k$ cycles of consecutive lengths. The 1st statement is a conjecture of Thomassen, the 2nd is a conjecture of Dean, the 3rd is a tight answer to a question of Bondy and Vince, and the 4th is a conjecture of Sudakov and Verstraëte. All of the above results are best possible.},
journal = {International Mathematics Research Notices},
author = {Gao, Jun and Huo, Qingyi and Liu, Chun-Hung and Ma, Jie},
editor = {null}
}

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