skip to main content

Title: Corrosion Behavior and Hardness of Binary Mg Alloys Produced via High-Energy Ball-Milling and Subsequent Spark Plasma Sintering
In this work, nine nanocrystalline binary Mg alloys were synthesized by high-energy ball milling. The compositions, Mg-5 wt% M (M-Cr, Ge, Mn, Mo, Ta, Ti, V, Y, and Zn), were milled with the objective of achieving non-equilibrium alloying. The milled alloys were consolidated via cold compaction (CC) at 25°C and spark plasma sintering (SPS) at 300°C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated grain refinement below 100 nm, and the scanning electron microscopy revealed homogeneous microstructures for all compositions. XRD analysis revealed that most of the alloys showed a change in the lattice parameter, which indicates the formation of a solid solution. A significant increase in the hardness compared to unmilled Mg was observed for all of the alloys. The corrosion behavior was improved in all of the binary alloys compared to milled Mg. A significant decrease in the cathodic kinetics was evident due to Ge and Zn additions. The influence of the alloying elements on corrosion behavior has been categorized and discussed based on the electrochemical response of their respective binary Mg alloys.
Authors:
; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1846887
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10219878
Journal Name:
Corrosion
Volume:
77
Issue:
2
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
228 to 241
ISSN:
0010-9312
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Alloying is well-known to improve the dehydrogenation selectivity of pure metals, but there remains considerable debate about the structural and electronic features of alloy surfaces that give rise to this behavior. To provide molecular-level insights into these effects, a series of Pd intermetallic alloy catalysts with Zn, Ga, In, Fe and Mn promoter elements was synthesized, and the structures were determined using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD). The alloys all showed propane dehydrogenation turnover rates 5–8 times higher than monometallic Pd and selectivity to propylene of over 90%. Moreover, among the synthesized alloys, Pd 3 M alloy structures were less olefin selective than PdM alloys which were, in turn, almost 100% selective to propylene. This selectivity improvement was interpreted by changes in the DFT-calculated binding energies and activation energies for C–C and C–H bond activation, which are ultimately influenced by perturbation of the most stable adsorption site and changes to the d-band density of states. Furthermore, transition state analysis showed that the C–C bond breaking reactions require 4-fold ensemble sites, which are suggested to be required for non-selective, alkane hydrogenolysis reactions. These sites, which are not present on alloys with PdM structures, could bemore »formed in the Pd 3 M alloy through substitution of one M atom with Pd, and this effect is suggested to be partially responsible for their slightly lower selectivity.« less
  2. Magnesium–yttrium-rare earth element alloys such as WE43 are potential candidates for future bioabsorbable orthopedic implant materials due to their biocompatibility, mechanical properties similar to human bone, and the ability to completely degrade in vivo . Unfortunately, the high corrosion rate of WE43 Mg alloys in physiological environments and subsequent loss of structural integrity limit the wide applications of these materials. In this study, the effect of chemical heterogeneity and microstructure on the corrosion resistance of two alloys with different metallurgical states was investigated: cast (as in traditional preparation) and as-deposited produced by magnetron sputtering. The corrosion behavior was studied by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests in blood bank buffered saline solution. It was found that the as-deposited alloy showed more than one order of magnitude reduction in corrosion current density compared to the cast alloy, owing to the elimination of micro-galvanic coupling between the Mg matrix and the precipitates. The microstructure and formation mechanism of corrosion products formed on both alloys were discussed based on immersion tests and direct measurements of X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis.
  3. The Zintl compound Eu 2 ZnSb 2 was recently shown to have a promising thermoelectric figure of merit, zT ∼ 1 at 823 K, due to its low lattice thermal conductivity and high electronic mobility. In the current study, we show that further increases to the electronic mobility and simultaneous reductions to the lattice thermal conductivity can be achieved by isovalent alloying with Bi on the Sb site in the Eu 2 ZnSb 2−x Bi x series ( x = 0, 0.25, 1, 2). Upon alloying with Bi, the effective mass decreases and the mobility linearly increases, showing no signs of reduction due to alloy scattering. Analysis of the pair distribution functions obtained from synchrotron X-ray diffraction revealed significant local structural distortions caused by the half-occupied Zn site in this structure type. It is all the more surprising, therefore, to find that Eu 2 ZnBi 2 possesses high electronic mobility (∼100 cm 2 V −1 s −1 ) comparable to that of AM 2 X 2 Zintl compounds. The enormous degree of disorder in this series gives rise to exceptionally low lattice thermal conductivity, which is further reduced by Bi substitution due to the decreased speed of sound. Increasing themore »Bi content was also found to decrease the band gap while increasing the carrier concentration by two orders of magnitude. Applying a single parabolic band model suggests that Bi-rich compositions of Eu 2 ZnSb 2−x Bi x have the potential for significantly improved zT ; however, further optimization is necessary through reduction of the carrier concentration to realize high zT .« less
  4. Electrochemical behavior of Ni alloys (Ni, β-NiAl, β-NiAl/Cr) was investigated in LiCl-KCl-Na2SO4 electrolyte at 700 °C under three gaseous atmospheres (Ar, O2, O2-0.1%SO2). In oxidizing atmospheres, Ni rapidly degraded due to instability of NiO, and alumina-rich scale on β-NiAl provided limited protection against hot corrosion (e.g., cracks in the scale under O2-0.1%SO2); however, the addition of both Al and Cr resulted in enhanced corrosion resistance by forming a mixed-oxide (Al2O3-Cr2O3) scale in oxidizing atmospheres. In hot corrosion processes of Ni alloys, the formation and stability of oxide scales in the molten salt were influenced by gaseous atmosphere and alloying elements.
  5. A series of new Ce( iv ) based fluorides with two different compositions, Cs 2 MCe 3 F 16 (M = Ni 2+ , Co 2+ , Mn 2+ , and Zn 2+ ) and Na 3 MCe 6 F 30 (M = Al 3+ , Ga 3+ , Fe 3+ , and Cr 3+ ) were synthesized as high quality single crystals via a mild hydrothermal route. The compounds with the composition Cs 2 MCe 3 F 16 (M = Ni 2+ , Co 2+ , Mn 2+ , and Zn 2+ ) crystallize in the hexagonal crystal system with space group P 6 3 / mmc and are isotypic with the uranium analogs, whereas the Na 3 MCe 6 F 30 (M = Al 3+ , Ga 3+ , Fe 3+ , and Cr 3+ ) compounds crystallize in the trigonal space group P 3̄ c 1 and are isotypic with the uranium and thorium analogs Na x MM′ 6 F 30 (M′ = Th, U). The Cs 2 MCe 3 F 16 compounds exhibit a complex 3D crystal structure constructed of edge-sharing cerium trimers, in which all three Ce atoms share a common μ 3 -F unit.more »The Na 3 MCe 6 F 30 compounds are constructed of edge- and vertex-sharing cerium polyhedra connected to each other to form Ce 6 F 30 6− framework, which can accommodate only relatively smaller trivalent cations (M 3+ = Al 3+ , Ga 3+ , Fe 3+ , and Cr 3+ ) as compared to uranium and thorium analogs. Magnetic susceptibility measurements were carried out on the samples of Cs 2 MCe 3 F 16 (M = Ni 2+ and Co 2+ ), which exhibit paramagnetic behavior.« less