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Title: Morphological and microstructural investigation of the non-planar interface formed in solid-state metal additive manufacturing by additive friction stir deposition
Additive friction stir deposition (AFSD) is an emerging solid-state metal additive manufacturing technology renowned for strong interface adhesion and isotropic mechanical properties. This is postulated to result from the material flow phenomena near the interface, but experimental corroboration has remained absent. Here, we seek to understand the interface formed in AFSD via morphological and microstructural investigation, wherein the non-planar interfacial morphology is characterized on the track-scale (centimeter scale) using X-ray computed tomography and the material deformation history is explored by microstructure mapping at the interfacial regions. X-ray computed tomography reveals unique 3D features at the interface with significant macroscopic material mixing. In the out-of-plane direction, the deposited material inserts below the initial substrate surface in the feed-rod zone, while the substrate surface surges upwards in the tool protrusion-affected zone. Complex 3D structures like fins and serrations form on the advancing side, leading to structural interlocking; on the retreating side, the interface manifests as a smooth sloped surface. Microstructure mapping reveals a uniform thermomechanical history for the deposited material, which develops a homogeneous, almost fully recrystallized microstructure. The substrate surface develops partially recrystallized microstructures that are location-dependent; more intra-granular orientation gradients are found in the regions further away from the centerline more » of the deposition track. From these observations, we discuss the mechanisms for interfacial material flow and interface morphology formation during AFSD. « less
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Additive manufacturing
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National Science Foundation
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