Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have recently been used for node and graph classification tasks with great success, but GNNs model dependencies among the attributes of nearby neighboring nodes rather than dependencies among observed node labels. In this work, we consider the task of inductive node classification using GNNs in supervised and semi-supervised settings, with the goal of incorporating label dependencies. Because current GNNs are not universal (i.e., most-expressive) graph representations, we propose a general collective learning approach to increase the representation power of any existing GNN. Our framework combines ideas from collective classification with self-supervised learning, and uses a Monte Carlo approach to sampling embeddings for inductive learning across graphs. We evaluate performance on five real-world network datasets and demonstrate consistent, significant improvement in node classification accuracy, for a variety of state-of-the-art GNNs.
Unsupervised Joint k-node Graph Representations with Compositional Energy-Based Models
Existing Graph Neural Network (GNN) methods that learn inductive unsupervised graph representations focus on learning node and edge representations by predicting observed edges in the graph. Although such approaches have shown advances in downstream node classification tasks, they are ineffective in jointly representing larger k-node sets, k > 2. We propose MHM-GNN, an inductive unsupervised graph representation approach that combines joint k-node representations with energy-based models (hypergraph Markov networks) and GNNs. To address the intractability of the loss that arises from this combination, we endow our optimization with a loss upper bound using a finite-sample unbiased Markov Chain Monte Carlo estimator. Our experiments show that the unsupervised MHM-GNN representations of MHM-GNN produce better unsupervised representations than existing approaches from the literature.
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