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Title: Electrophilicity Scale of Activated Amides: 17 O NMR and 15 N NMR Chemical Shifts of Acyclic Twisted Amides in N−C(O) Cross‐Coupling
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Journal Name:
Chemistry – A European Journal
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
16246 to 16250
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. The structure and spectroscopic properties of the amide bond are a topic of fundamental interest in chemistry and biology. Herein, we report 17 O NMR and 15 N NMR spectroscopic data for four series of sterically-hindered acyclic amides. Despite the utility of 17 O NMR and 15 N NMR spectroscopy, these methods are severely underutilized in the experimental determination of electronic properties of the amide bond. The data demonstrate that a combined use of 17 O NMR and 15 N NMR serves as a powerful tool in assessing electronic effects of the amide bond substitution as a measure of electrophilicity of the amide bond. Notably, we demonstrate that steric destabilization of the amide bond results in electronically-activated amides that are comparable in terms of electrophilicity to acyl fluorides and carboxylic acid anhydrides.
  2. The direct nucleophilic addition to amides represents an attractive methodology in organic synthesis that tackles amidic resonance by ground-state destabilization. This approach has been recently accomplished with carbon, nitrogen and oxygen nucleophiles. Herein, we report an exceedingly mild method for the direct thioesterification and selenoesterification of amides by selective N–C(O) bond cleavage in the absence of transition metals. Acyclic amides undergo N–C(O) to S/Se–C(O) interconversion to give the corresponding thioesters and selenoesters in excellent yields at room temperature via a tetrahedral intermediate pathway (cf. an acyl metal).