- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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The ability to understand the function of a protein often relies on knowledge about its detailed structure. Sometimes, seemingly insignificant changes in the primary structure of a protein, like an amino acid substitution, can completely disrupt a protein's function. Long-lived proteins (LLPs), which can be found in critical areas of the human body, like the brain and eye, are especially susceptible to primary sequence alterations in the form of isomerization and epimerization. Because long-lived proteins do not have the corrective regeneration capabilities of most other proteins, points of isomerism and epimerization that accumulate within the proteins can severely hamper their functions and can lead to serious diseases like Alzheimer's disease, cancer and cataracts. Whereas tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in the form of collision-induced dissociation (CID) generally excels at peptide characterization, MS/MS often struggles to pinpoint modifications within LLPs, especially when the differences are only isomeric or epimeric in nature. One of the most prevalent and difficult-to-identify modifications is that of aspartic acid between its four isomeric forms: l -Asp, l -isoAsp, d -Asp, and d -isoAsp. In this study, peptides containing isomers of Asp were analyzed by charge transfer dissociation (CTD) mass spectrometry to identify spectral features that could discriminate between the different isomers. For the four isomers of Asp in three model peptides, CTD produced diagnostic ions of the form c n +57 on the N-terminal side of iso-Asp residues, but not on the N-terminal side of Asp residues. Using CTD, the l - and d forms of Asp and isoAsp could also be differentiated based on the relative abundance of y - and z ions on the C-terminal side of Asp residues. Differentiation was accomplished through a chiral discrimination factor, R , which compares an ion ratio in a spectrum of one epimer or isomer to the same ion ratio in the spectrum of a different epimer or isomer. The R values obtained using CTD are as robust and statistically significant as other fragmentation techniques, like radical directed dissociation (RDD). In summary, the extent of backbone and side-chain fragments produced by CTD enabled the differentiation of isomers and epimers of Asp in a variety of peptides.more » « less
Ion dissociation is the usual basis for tandem MS analysis but a significant limitation is that only charged fragments from ion dissociation events are detected while neutral fragments are simply lost. This study reports our continued effort to solve this problem by developing atmospheric pressure neutral reionization mass spectrometry (APNR). In APNR, analyte ions are thermally dissociated (atmospheric pressure thermal dissociation, APTD) followed by soft reionization using electrosonic spray ionization (ESSI). Our results show that APNR is a powerful method for structural analysis of various biomolecules such as peptides, saccharides and nucleotides, as well as for elucidating unimolecular ion dissociation mechanisms. It was found that APNR provides extensive fragment ions including a series of y ions in peptides, which benefit sequencing and provide complementary information to collision induced dissociation (CID). In particular, direct cleavage of disulfide bonds of peptides occurs during APTD, facilitating peptide sequencing and disulfide bond mapping. In addition, many cross-ring cleavage fragments are detected during APNR analysis of oligosaccharides, indicating that the APTD dissociation process is energetic and potentially useful for identifying glycan linkage sites. Fragmentation patterns of oligosaccharide isomers can be used for their differentiation. Furthermore, in the cases of dissociation of nucleotides and synthetic naphthoylindole drugs, the putative neutral, phosphorylated riboses and indoles, were successfully detected using APNR, providing strong evidence to confirm previously proposed unimolecular ion dissociation mechanisms. We believe this APNR technique along with APTD should be of high value in structure determination of biomolecules.more » « less
We report a collision‐induced dissociation (CID) based gas phase rearrangement study using quadrupole time‐of‐flight mass spectrometry coupled with liquid chromatography on a novel endothelin and angiotensin II receptor antagonist, sparsentan. We performed tandem mass spectrometry to identify precursor and fragment ion relationships and assigned structures for major fragment ions. We propose a benzyl migration mechanism based on bond length measurements in density functional theory (B3LYP/6‐31+G*) optimized geometries of protonated sparsentan and its
m/z547 fragment. Protonated sparsentan undergoes loss of ethanol, which yields a resonance‐stabilized benzylic cation with m/z547, which further fragments into m/z353 via benzyl migration, where the benzylic cation migrates to one of the nucleophilic nitrogen atoms followed by proton transfer from the sulfonamide nitrogen to a carbonyl oxygen, resulting in a neutral loss of mass 194. Further fragmentation of m/z353 results in m/z258, which undergoes radical and neutral loss to yield m/z193 and 194, respectively. The proposed mechanism of generation of m/z353 was confirmed by CID of deuterated sparsentan. Considering the importance of gas phase rearrangements of organic molecules in structural identifications as well as the novelty of the molecule, these findings will be helpful for future studies to predict gas phase benzyl migration in sparsentan analogs and for degradation product and metabolite identification of sparsentan and its analogs using LC–MS.
Tandem‐ion mobility spectrometry/mass spectrometry methods have recently gained traction for the structural characterization of proteins and protein complexes. However, ion activation techniques currently coupled with tandem‐ion mobility spectrometry/mass spectrometry methods are limited in their ability to characterize structures of proteins and protein complexes.
Here, we describe the coupling of the separation capabilities of tandem‐trapped ion mobility spectrometry/mass spectrometry (tTIMS/MS) with the dissociation capabilities of ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) for protein structure analysis.
We establish the feasibility of dissociating intact proteins by UV irradiation at 213 nm between the two TIMS devices in tTIMS/MS and at pressure conditions compatible with ion mobility spectrometry (2–3 mbar). We validate that the fragments produced by UVPD under these conditions result from a radical‐based mechanism in accordance with prior literature on UVPD. The data suggest stabilization of fragment ions produced from UVPD by collisional cooling due to the elevated pressures used here (“UVnoD2”), which otherwise do not survive to detection. The data account for a sequence coverage for the protein ubiquitin comparable to recent reports, demonstrating the analytical utility of our instrument in mobility‐separating fragment ions produced from UVPD.
The data demonstrate that UVPD carried out at elevated pressures of 2–3 mbar yields extensive fragment ions rich in information about the protein and that their exhaustive analysis requires IMS separation post‐UVPD. Therefore, because UVPD and tTIMS/MS each have been shown to be valuable techniques on their own merit in proteomics, our contribution here underscores the potential of combining tTIMS/MS with UVPD for structural proteomics.
Alkali and alkaline earth metal adducts of a branched glycan, XXXG, were analyzed with helium charge transfer dissociation (He‐CTD) and low‐energy collision‐induced dissociation (LE‐CID) to investigate if metalation would impact the type of fragments generated and the structural characterization of the analyte. The studied adducts included 1+ and 2+ precursors involving one or more of the cations: H+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+. Regardless of the metal adduct, He‐CTD generated abundant and numerous glycosidic and cross‐ring cleavages that were structurally informative and able to identify the 1,4‐linkage and 1,6‐branching patterns. In contrast, the LE‐CID spectra mainly contained glycosidic cleavages, consecutive fragments, and numerous neutral losses, which complicated spectral interpretation. LE‐CID of [M + K + H]2+and [M + Na]+precursors generated a few cross‐ring cleavages, but they were not sufficient to identify the 1,4‐linkage and 1,6‐branching pattern of the XXXG xyloglucan. He‐CTD predominantly generated 1+ fragments from 1+ precursors and 2+ product ions from 2+ precursors, although both LE‐CID and He‐CTD were able to generate 1+ product ions from 2+ adducts of magnesium and calcium. The singly charged fragments derive from the loss of H+from the metalated product ions and the formation of a protonated complementary product ion; such observations are similar to previous reports for magnesium and calcium salts undergoing electron capture dissociation (ECD) activation. However, during He‐CTD, the [M + Mg]2+precursor generated more singly charged product ions than [M + Ca]2+, either because Mg has a higher second ionization potential than Ca or because of conformational differences and the locations of the charging adducts during fragmentation. He‐CTD of the [M + 2Na]2+and the [M + 2 K]2+precursors generated singly charged product ions from the loss of a sodium ion and potassium ion, respectively. In summary, although the metal ions influence the mass and charge state of the observed product ions, the metal ions had a negligible effect on the types of cross‐ring cleavages observed.