skip to main content

Title: Enhanced thermoelectric performance of F4-TCNQ doped FASnI 3 thin films
In the past decade, great efforts have been devoted to the development of organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites for achieving efficient photovoltaics, but less attention has been paid to their thermoelectric applications. In this study, for the first time, we report the thermoelectric performance of 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4-TCNQ) doped NH 2 CHNH 2 SnI 3 (FASnI 3 ) thin films. It is found that the electrical conductivities of the F4-TCNQ doped FASnI 3 thin films increase and then decrease along with increased doping levels of F4-TCNQ. Systematic studies indicate that enhanced electrical conductivities are attributed to the increased charge carrier concentrations and mobilities and superior film morphologies of the F4-TCNQ doped FASnI 3 thin films, and decreased electrical conductivities originate from the cracks and poor film morphology of the F4-TCNQ doped FASnI 3 thin films induced by excess F4-TCNQ dopants. The quantitative thermal conductivity scanning thermal microscopy studies reveal that the F4-TCNQ doped FASnI 3 thin films exhibit ultralow thermal conductivities. Moreover, the thermoelectric performance of the F4-TCNQ doped FASnI 3 thin films is investigated. It is found that the F4-TCNQ doped FASnI 3 thin films exhibit a Seebeck coefficient of ∼310 μV K −1 , a power factor of ∼130 μW m more » −1 K −2 and a ZT value of ∼0.19 at room temperature. All these results demonstrate that our studies open a door for exploring cost-effective less-toxic organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites in heat-to-electricity conversion applications at room temperature. « less
; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Chemistry A
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
25431 to 25442
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Thin films of amorphous small molecule semiconductors are widely used in organic light emitting displays and have promising applications in solar cells and thermoelectric devices. Adding dopants increases the conductivity of organic semiconductors, but high concentrations of dopants can disrupt their structural ordering, alter the shape of the electronic density of states in the material, and increase the effects of Coulomb interactions on charge transport. Electrical doping of the solution processable hole-transport material 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis[ N , N -di(4-methoxyphenyl)amino]-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) was studied with 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F 4 TCNQ) as a p-type dopant. Infiltration of F 4 TCNQ from the vapor phase into films of spiro-OMeTAD provided a route to highly doped films with up to 39 ± 2 mol% doping. Structural characterization confirmed that the films remain amorphous even at the highest doping levels with no apparent phase separation. We quantitatively determined the carrier concentration using UV-Vis spectroscopy to interpret the evolution of the electrical conductivity. Over the range of carrier concentrations (10 19 –10 20 1 cm −3 ), the electrical conductivity increased no more than linearly with carrier concentration, while the thermopower had a small increase with carrier concentration. The trends in conductivity and thermopower were related to the uniquemore »electronic structure of spiro-OMeTAD, which is able to support two carriers per molecule. Temperature-dependent conductivity measurements were used to further analyze the transport mechanism.« less
  2. Controlling nanoporosity to favorably alter multiple properties in layered crystalline inorganic thin films is a challenge. Here, we demonstrate that the thermoelectric and mechanical properties of Ca 3 Co 4 O 9 films can be engineered through nanoporosity control by annealing multiple Ca(OH) 2 /Co 3 O 4 reactant bilayers with characteristic bilayer thicknesses (b t ). Our results show that doubling b t , e.g. , from 12 to 26 nm, more than triples the average pore size from ∼120 nm to ∼400 nm and increases the pore fraction from 3% to 17.1%. The higher porosity film exhibits not only a 50% higher electrical conductivity of σ ∼ 90 S cm −1 and a high Seebeck coefficient of α ∼ 135 μV K −1 , but also a thermal conductivity as low as κ ∼ 0.87 W m −1 K −1 . The nanoporous Ca 3 Co 4 O 9 films exhibit greater mechanical compliance and resilience to bending than the bulk. These results indicate that annealing reactant multilayers with controlled thicknesses is an attractive way to engineer nanoporosity and realize mechanically flexible oxide-based thermoelectric materials.
  3. There has been a growing interest in solution-phase routes to thermoelectric materials due to the decreased costs and novel device architectures that these methods enable. Many excellent thermoelectric materials are metal chalcogenide semiconductors and the ability to create soluble metal chalcogenide semiconductor precursors using thiol–amine solvent mixtures was recently demonstrated by others. In this paper, we report the first thermoelectric property measurements on metal chalcogenide thin films made in this manner. We create Cu 2−x Se y S 1−y and Ag-doped Cu 2−x Se y S 1−y thin films and study the interrelationship between their composition and room temperature thermoelectric properties. We find that the precursor annealing temperature affects the metal : chalcogen ratio, and leads to charge carrier concentration changes that affect the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity. Increasing the Se : S ratio increases electrical conductivity and decreases the Seebeck coefficient. We also find that incorporating Ag into the Cu 2−x Se y S 1−y film leads to appreciable improvements in thermoelectric performance by increasing the Seebeck coefficient and decreasing thermal conductivity. Overall, we find that the room temperature thermoelectric properties of these solution-processed materials are comparable to measurements on Cu 2−x Se alloys made via conventional thermoelectric material processing methods. Achievingmore »parity between solution-phase processing and conventional processing is an important milestone and demonstrates the promise of this binary solvent approach as a solution-phase route to thermoelectric materials.« less
  4. HfO 2 -based antiferroelectric-like thin films are increasingly being considered for commercial devices. However, even with initial promise, the temperature sensitivity of electrical properties such as loss tangent and leakage current remains unreported. 50 nm thick, 4 at. % Al-doped HfO 2 thin films were synthesized via atomic layer deposition with both top and bottom electrodes being TiN or Pt. A study of their capacitance vs temperature showed that the Pt/Al:HfO 2 /Pt had a relative dielectric permittivity of 23.30 ± 0.06 at room temperature with a temperature coefficient of capacitance (TCC) of 78 ± 86 ppm/°C, while the TiN/Al:HfO 2 /TiN had a relative dielectric permittivity of 32.28 ± 0.14 at room temperature with a TCC of 322 ± 41 ppm/°C. The capacitance of both devices varied less than 6% over 1 to 1000 kHz from −125 to 125 °C. Both capacitors maintained loss tangents under 0.03 and leakage current densities of 10 −9 –10 −7 A/cm 2 between −125 and 125 °C. The TiN/Al:HfO 2 /TiN capacitor maintained an energy storage density (ESD) of 18.17 ± 0.79 J/cm 3 at an efficiency of 51.79% ± 2.75% over the −125 to 125 °C range. The Pt/Al:HfO 2 /Pt capacitor also maintained a stable ESD of 9.83 ± 0.26 J/cm 3 with an efficiency of 62.87% ± 3.00% over the same temperature range. Suchmore »low losses in both capacitors along with their thermal stability make antiferroelectric-like, Al-doped HfO 2 thin films a promising material for temperature-stable microelectronics.« less
  5. Zero-dimensional (0D) halides perovskites, in which anionic metal-halide octahedra (MX 6 ) 4− are separated by organic or inorganic countercations, have recently shown promise as excellent luminescent materials. However, the origin of the photoluminescence (PL) and, in particular, the different photophysical properties in hybrid organic–inorganic and all inorganic halides are still poorly understood. In this work, first-principles calculations were performed to study the excitons and intrinsic defects in 0D hybrid organic–inorganic halides (C 4 N 2 H 14 X) 4 SnX 6 (X = Br, I), which exhibit a high photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE) at room temperature (RT), and also in the 0D inorganic halide Cs 4 PbBr 6 , which suffers from strong thermal quenching when T > 100 K. We show that the excitons in all three 0D halides are strongly bound and cannot be detrapped or dissociated at RT, which leads to immobile excitons in (C 4 N 2 H 14 X) 4 SnX 6 . However, the excitons in Cs 4 PbBr 6 can still migrate by tunneling, enabled by the resonant transfer of excitation energy (Dexter energy transfer). The exciton migration in Cs 4 PbBr 6 leads to a higher probability of trapping and nonradiativemore »recombination at the intrinsic defects. We show that a large Stokes shift and the negligible electronic coupling between luminescent centers are important for suppressing exciton migration; thereby, enhancing the photoluminescence quantum efficiency. Our results also suggest that the frequently observed bright green emission in Cs 4 PbBr 6 is not due to the exciton or defect-induced emission in Cs 4 PbBr 6 but rather the result of exciton emission from CsPbBr 3 inclusions trapped in Cs 4 PbBr 6 .« less