Estimating brown adipose tissue activity for a study of hot flashes [Abstract]
This presentation compares methods of estimating brown adipose tissue (BAT). As part of an ongoing study of BAT activity in relation to hot flashes, we asked women aged 45-55 to place their hand in cool (17oC) water. We took a thermal image of each woman (Flir camera) before and after the cooling of her hand. To estimate BAT activity, we compared the change in temperature in the supraclavicular area with a control area. Initially, we used a point on the mid-sternum as the control. Because we were concerned that there may be BAT tissue along the sternum, we also tried a control region on the mid-right arm. We used two equations to estimate BAT activity. The first computed the difference in maximum supraclavicular temperature (SCT) minus the difference in the control temperature [(PostMaxSupraclavicular – PreMaxSupraclavicular) - (PostControlMean - PreControlMean)]. Mean BAT estimated from the maximum SCT and arm temperature was higher (0.80, s.d. 0.51, range 0 to 2.10) than from the maximum SCT and sternal temperature (0.63, s.d. 0.45, range 0 to 1.70). There was no relationship between biceps skinfold and arm temperature, or between other anthropometric measures (summed skinfolds, BMI, percent body fat) and estimates of BAT. The sample more »
Authors:
; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10226329
Journal Name:
American Journal of Human Biology
Volume:
33
Issue:
S1
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
40
ISSN:
1042-0533
National Science Foundation
##### More Like this
1. Abstract

Exertional heat illness and stroke are serious concerns across youth and college sports programs. While some teams and governing bodies have adopted the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT), few practitioners use measurements on the field of play; rather, they often rely on regionally modeled or estimated WBGT. However, urban development-induced heat and projected climate change increase exposure to heat. We examined WBGT levels between various athletic surfaces and regional weather stations under current and projected climates and in hot-humid and hot-dry weather regimes in the southwest U.S. in Tempe, Arizona. On-site sun-exposed WBGT data across five days (07:00–19:00 local time) in June (dry) and August (humid) were collected over five athletic surfaces: rubber, artificial turf, clay, grass, and asphalt. Weather stations data were used to estimate regional WBGT (via the Liljegren model) and compared to on-site, observed WBGT. Finally, projected changes to WBGT were modeled under mid-century and late-century conditions. On-field WBGT observations were, on average, significantly higher than WBGT estimated from regional weather stations by 2.4°C–2.5°C, with mean on-field WBGT across both months of 28.52.76°C (versus 25.83.21°C regionally). However, between-athletic surface WBGT differences were largely insignificant. Significantly higher mean WBGTs occurred in August (30.12.35°C) versus June (26.92.19°C) acrossmore »

2. ##### Abstract
Excessive phosphorus (P) applications to croplands can contribute to eutrophication of surface waters through surface runoff and subsurface (leaching) losses. We analyzed leaching losses of total dissolved P (TDP) from no-till corn, hybrid poplar (Populus nigra X P. maximowiczii), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus), native grasses, and restored prairie, all planted in 2008 on former cropland in Michigan, USA. All crops except corn (13 kg P ha−1 year−1) were grown without P fertilization. Biomass was harvested at the end of each growing season except for poplar. Soil water at 1.2 m depth was sampled weekly to biweekly for TDP determination during March–November 2009–2016 using tension lysimeters. Soil test P (0–25 cm depth) was measured every autumn. Soil water TDP concentrations were usually below levels where eutrophication of surface waters is frequently observed (&gt; 0.02 mg L−1) but often higher than in deep groundwater or nearby streams and lakes. Rates of P leaching, estimated from measured concentrations and modeled drainage, did not differ statistically among cropping systems across years; 7-year cropping system means ranged from 0.035 to 0.072 kg P ha−1 year−1 with large interannual variation. Leached P was positively related to STP, which decreased over the 7 years in all systems. These results indicate that both P-fertilized and unfertilized cropping systems mayMore>>
3. Abstract

We present a proof of concept for a spectrally selective thermal mid-IR source based on nanopatterned graphene (NPG) with a typical mobility of CVD-grown graphene (up to 3000$$\hbox {cm}^2\,\hbox {V}^{-1}\,\hbox {s}^{-1}$$${\text{cm}}^{2}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}{\text{V}}^{-1}\phantom{\rule{0ex}{0ex}}{\text{s}}^{-1}$), ensuring scalability to large areas. For that, we solve the electrostatic problem of a conducting hyperboloid with an elliptical wormhole in the presence of anin-planeelectric field. The localized surface plasmons (LSPs) on the NPG sheet, partially hybridized with graphene phonons and surface phonons of the neighboring materials, allow for the control and tuning of the thermal emission spectrum in the wavelength regime from$$\lambda =3$$$\lambda =3$to 12$$\upmu$$$\mu$m by adjusting the size of and distance between the circular holes in a hexagonal or square lattice structure. Most importantly, the LSPs along with an optical cavity increase the emittance of graphene from about 2.3% for pristine graphene to 80% for NPG, thereby outperforming state-of-the-art pristine graphene light sources operating in the near-infrared by at least a factor of 100. According to our COMSOL calculations, a maximum emission power per area of$$11\times 10^3$$$11×{10}^{3}$W/$$\hbox {m}^2$$${\text{m}}^{2}$at$$T=2000$$$T=2000$K for a bias voltage of$$V=23$$$V=23$V is achieved by controlling the temperature of the hot electrons through the Joule heating. By generalizing Planck’s theory to any grey body and derivingmore »

4. Ultrasonic bat detectors are useful for research and monitoring purposes to assess occupancy and relative activity of bat communities. Environmental “clutter” such as tree boles and foliage can affect the recording quality and identification of bat echolocation calls collected using ultrasonic detectors. It can also affect the transmission of calls and recognition by bats when using acoustic lure devices to attract bats to mist-nets. Bat detectors are often placed in forests, yet automatic identification programs are trained on call libraries using echolocation passes recorded largely from open spaces. Research indicates that using clutter-recorded calls can increase classification accuracy for some bat species and decrease accuracy for others, but a detailed understanding of how clutter impacts the recording and identification of echolocation calls remains elusive. To clarify this, we experimentally investigated how two measures of clutter (i.e., total basal area and number of stems of simulated woody growth, as well as recording angle) affected the recording and classification of a synthesized echolocation signal under controlled conditions in an anechoic chamber. Recording angle (i.e., receiver position relative to emitter) significantly influenced the probability of correct classification and differed significantly for many of the call parameters measured. The probability of recording echo pulsesmore »
5. Background Research has shown the feasibility of human activity recognition using wearable accelerometer devices. Different studies have used varying numbers and placements for data collection using sensors. Objective This study aims to compare accuracy performance between multiple and variable placements of accelerometer devices in categorizing the type of physical activity and corresponding energy expenditure in older adults. Methods In total, 93 participants (mean age 72.2 years, SD 7.1) completed a total of 32 activities of daily life in a laboratory setting. Activities were classified as sedentary versus nonsedentary, locomotion versus nonlocomotion, and lifestyle versus nonlifestyle activities (eg, leisure walk vs computer work). A portable metabolic unit was worn during each activity to measure metabolic equivalents (METs). Accelerometers were placed on 5 different body positions: wrist, hip, ankle, upper arm, and thigh. Accelerometer data from each body position and combinations of positions were used to develop random forest models to assess activity category recognition accuracy and MET estimation. Results Model performance for both MET estimation and activity category recognition were strengthened with the use of additional accelerometer devices. However, a single accelerometer on the ankle, upper arm, hip, thigh, or wrist had only a 0.03-0.09 MET increase in prediction error comparedmore »