Programmable mechanically active materials (MAMs) are defined as materials that can sense and transduce external stimuli into mechanical outputs or conversely that can detect mechanical stimuli and respond through an optical change or other change in the appearance of the material. Programmable MAMs are a subset of responsive materials and offer potential in next generation robotics and smart systems. This review specifically focuses on hydrogel‐based MAMs because of their mechanical compliance, programmability, biocompatibility, and cost‐efficiency. First, the composition of hydrogel MAMs along with the top‐down and bottom‐up approaches used for programming these materials are discussed. Next, the fundamental principles for engineering responsivity in MAMS, which includes optical, thermal, magnetic, electrical, chemical, and mechanical stimuli, are considered. Some advantages and disadvantages of different responsivities are compared. Then, to conclude, the emerging applications of hydrogel‐based MAMs from recently published literature, as well as the future outlook of MAM studies, are summarized.
- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Journal of Materials Chemistry B
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- 3171 to 3191
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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