skip to main content

Title: Multi-Omics Revealed Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Guard Cell Systemic Acquired Resistance
Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) improves immunity of plant systemic tissue after local exposure to a pathogen. Guard cells that form stomatal pores on leaf surfaces recognize bacterial pathogens via pattern recognition receptors, such as Flagellin Sensitive 2 (FLS2). However, how SAR affects stomatal immunity is not known. In this study, we aim to reveal molecular mechanisms underlying the guard cell response to SAR using multi-omics of proteins, metabolites and lipids. Arabidopsis plants previously exposed to pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst) exhibit an altered stomatal response compared to control plants when they are later exposed to the bacteria. Reduced stomatal apertures of SAR primed plants lead to decreased number of bacteria in leaves. Multi-omics has revealed molecular components of SAR response specific to guard cells functions, including potential roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and fatty acid signaling. Our results show an increase in palmitic acid and its derivative in the primed guard cells. Palmitic acid may play a role as an activator of FLS2, which initiates stomatal immune response. Improved understanding of how SAR signals affect stomatal immunity can aid biotechnology and marker-based breeding of crops for enhanced disease resistance.
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. After localized invasion by bacterial pathogens, systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is induced in uninfected plant tissues, resulting in enhanced defense against a broad range of pathogens. Although SAR requires mobilization of signaling molecules via the plant vasculature, the specific molecular mechanisms remain elusive. The lipid transfer protein defective in induced resistance 1 (DIR1) was identified in Arabidopsis thaliana by screening for mutants that were defective in SAR. Here, we demonstrate that stomatal response to pathogens is altered in systemic leaves by SAR, and this guard cell SAR defense requires DIR1. Using a multi-omics approach, we have determined potential SAR signaling mechanisms specific for guard cells in systemic leaves by profiling metabolite, lipid, and protein differences between guard cells in the wild type and dir1-1 mutant during SAR. We identified two long-chain 18 C and 22 C fatty acids and two 16 C wax esters as putative SAR-related molecules dependent on DIR1. Proteins and metabolites related to amino acid biosynthesis and response to stimulus were also changed in guard cells of dir1-1 compared to the wild type. Identification of guard cell-specific SAR-related molecules may lead to new avenues of genetic modification/molecular breeding for disease-resistant plants.
  2. Drought differs from other natural disasters in several respects, largely because of the complexity of a crop’s response to it and also because we have the least understanding of a crop’s inductive mechanism for addressing drought tolerance among all abiotic stressors. Overall, the growth and productivity of crops at a global level is now thought to be an issue that is more severe and arises more frequently due to climatic change-induced drought stress. Among the major crops, rice is a frontline staple cereal crop of the developing world and is critical to sustaining populations on a daily basis. Worldwide, studies have reported a reduction in rice productivity over the years as a consequence of drought. Plants are evolutionarily primed to withstand a substantial number of environmental cues by undergoing a wide range of changes at the molecular level, involving gene, protein and metabolite interactions to protect the growing plant. Currently, an in-depth, precise and systemic understanding of fundamental biological and cellular mechanisms activated by crop plants during stress is accomplished by an umbrella of -omics technologies, such as transcriptomics, metabolomics and proteomics. This combination of multi-omics approaches provides a comprehensive understanding of cellular dynamics during drought or other stress conditionsmore »in comparison to a single -omics approach. Thus a greater need to utilize information (big-omics data) from various molecular pathways to develop drought-resilient crop varieties for cultivation in ever-changing climatic conditions. This review article is focused on assembling current peer-reviewed published knowledge on the use of multi-omics approaches toward expediting the development of drought-tolerant rice plants for sustainable rice production and realizing global food security.« less
  3. Increases in CO2concentration in plant leaves due to respiration in the dark and the continuing atmospheric [CO2] rise cause closing of stomatal pores, thus affecting plant–water relations globally. However, the underlying CO2/bicarbonate (CO2/HCO3) sensing mechanisms remain unknown. [CO2] elevation in leaves triggers stomatal closure by anion efflux mediated via the SLAC1 anion channel localized in the plasma membrane of guard cells. Previous reconstitution analysis has suggested that intracellular bicarbonate ions might directly up-regulate SLAC1 channel activity. However, whether such a CO2/HCO3regulation of SLAC1 is relevant for CO2control of stomatal movements in planta remains unknown. Here, we computationally probe for candidate bicarbonate-interacting sites within the SLAC1 anion channel via long-timescale Gaussian accelerated molecular dynamics (GaMD) simulations. Mutations of two putative bicarbonate-interacting residues, R256 and R321, impaired the enhancement of the SLAC1 anion channel activity by CO2/HCO3inXenopusoocytes. Mutations of the neighboring charged amino acid K255 and residue R432 and the predicted gate residue F450 did not affect HCO3regulation of SLAC1. Notably, gas-exchange experiments withslac1-transformed plants expressing mutated SLAC1 proteins revealed that the SLAC1 residue R256 is required for CO2regulation of stomatal movements in planta, but not for abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closing. Patch clamp analyses of guard cells show that activation ofmore »S-type anion channels by CO2/HCO3, but not by ABA, was impaired, indicating the relevance of R256 for CO2signal transduction. Together, these analyses suggest that the SLAC1 anion channel is one of the physiologically relevant CO2/HCO3sensors in guard cells.

    « less
  4. Abstract

    Glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) is a well-known mobile regulator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which provides broad spectrum systemic immunity in response to localized foliar pathogenic infections. We show that G3P-derived foliar immunity is also activated in response to genetically-regulated incompatible interactions with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Using gene knock-down we show that G3P is essential for strain-specific exclusion of non-desirable root-nodulating bacteria and the associated foliar pathogen immunity in soybean. Grafting studies show that while recognition of rhizobium incompatibility is root driven, bacterial exclusion requires G3P biosynthesis in the shoot. Biochemical analyses support shoot-to-root transport of G3P during incompatible rhizobia interaction. We describe a root-shoot-root signaling mechanism which simultaneously enables the plant to exclude non-desirable nitrogen-fixing rhizobia in the root and pathogenic microbes in the shoot.

  5. A central question is how specificity in cellular responses to the eukaryotic second messenger Ca2+ is achieved. Plant guard cells, that form stomatal pores for gas exchange, provide a powerful system for in depth investigation of Ca2+-signaling specificity in plants. In intact guard cells, abscisic acid (ABA) enhances (primes) the Ca2+-sensitivity of downstream signaling events that result in activation of S-type anion channels during stomatal closure, providing a specificity mechanism in Ca2+-signaling. However, the underlying genetic and biochemical mechanisms remain unknown. Here we show impairment of ABA signal transduction in stomata of calcium-dependent protein kinase quadruple mutant plants. Interestingly, protein phosphatase 2Cs prevent non-specific Ca2+-signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate an unexpected interdependence of the Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent ABA-signaling branches and the in planta requirement of simultaneous phosphorylation at two key phosphorylation sites in SLAC1. We identify novel mechanisms ensuring specificity and robustness within stomatal Ca2+-signaling on a cellular, genetic, and biochemical level.