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Title: Measurement report: Leaf-scale gas exchange of atmospheric reactive trace species (NO<sub>2</sub>, NO, O<sub>3</sub>) at a northern hardwood forest in Michigan
Abstract. During the Program for Research on Oxidants: PHotochemistry, Emissions, and Transport (PROPHET) campaign from 21 July to 3 August 2016,field experiments on leaf-level trace gas exchange of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were conducted for thefirst time on the native American tree species Pinus strobus (eastern white pine), Acer rubrum (redmaple), Populus grandidentata (bigtooth aspen), and Quercus rubra (red oak) in a temperate hardwood forest inMichigan, USA. We measured the leaf-level trace gas exchange rates andinvestigated the existence of an NO2 compensation point, hypothesizedbased on a comparison of a previously observed average diurnal cycle ofNOx (NO2+NO) concentrations with that simulated using amulti-layer canopy exchange model. Known amounts of trace gases wereintroduced into a tree branch enclosure and a paired blank referenceenclosure. The trace gas concentrations before and after the enclosures weremeasured, as well as the enclosed leaf area (single-sided) and gas flow rate to obtain the trace gas fluxes with respect to leaf surface. There was nodetectable NO uptake for all tree types. The foliar NO2 and O3uptake largely followed a diurnal cycle, correlating with that of the leafstomatal conductance. NO2 and O3 fluxes were driven by theirconcentration gradient from ambient to leaf internal space. The NO2 loss rate at the leaf surface, equivalently the foliar NO2 deposition velocity toward the leaf surface, ranged from 0 to 3.6 mm s−1 for bigtooth aspen and from 0 to 0.76 mm s−1 for red oak, both of which are∼90 % of the expected values based on the stomatalconductance of water. The deposition velocities for red maple and white pineranged from 0.3 to 1.6 and from 0.01 to 1.1 mm s−1, respectively, and were lower than predicted from the stomatal conductance, implying amesophyll resistance to the uptake. Additionally, for white pine, theextrapolated velocity at zero stomatal conductance was 0.4±0.08 mm s−1, indicating a non-stomatal uptake pathway. The NO2compensation point was ≤60 ppt for all four tree species andindistinguishable from zero at the 95 % confidence level. This agrees withrecent reports for several European and California tree species butcontradicts some earlier experimental results where the compensation pointswere found to be on the order of 1 ppb or higher. Given that the sampledtree types represent 80 %–90 % of the total leaf area at this site, theseresults negate the previously hypothesized important role of a leaf-scaleNO2 compensation point. Consequently, to reconcile these findings,further detailed comparisons between the observed and simulated in- and above-canopy NOx concentrations and the leaf- and canopy-scaleNOx fluxes, using the multi-layer canopy exchange model withconsideration of the leaf-scale NOx deposition velocities as well asstomatal conductances reported here, are recommended.  more » « less
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Journal Name:
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Page Range / eLocation ID:
11287 to 11304
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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