In this paper, a novel data offloading decision-making framework is proposed, where users have the option to partially offload their data to a complex Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) environment, consisting of both ground and UAV-mounted MEC servers. The problem is treated under the perspective of risk-aware user behavior as captured via prospect-theoretic utility functions, while accounting for the inherent computing environment uncertainties. The UAV-mounted MEC servers act as a common pool of resources with potentially superior but uncertain payoff for the users, while the local computation and ground server alternatives constitute safe and guaranteed options, respectively. The optimal user task offloading to the available computing choices is formulated as a maximization problem of each user's satisfaction, and confronted as a non-cooperative game. The existence and uniqueness of a Pure Nash Equilibrium (PNE) are proven, and convergence to the PNE is shown. Detailed numerical results highlight the convergence of the system to the PNE in few only iterations, while the impact of user behavior heterogeneity is evaluated. The introduced framework's consideration of the user risk-aware characteristics and computing uncertainties, results to a sophisticated exploitation of the system resources, which in turn leads to superior users' experienced performance compared to alternative approaches.
Data Offloading in UAV-Assisted Multi-Access Edge Computing Systems: A Resource-Based Pricing and User Risk-Awareness Approach
Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-assisted Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) systems have emerged recently as a flexible and dynamic computing environment, providing task offloading service to the users. In order for such a paradigm to be viable, the operator of a UAV-mounted MEC server should enjoy some form of profit by offering its computing capabilities to the end users. To deal with this issue in this paper, we apply a usage-based pricing policy for allowing the exploitation of the servers’ computing resources. The proposed pricing mechanism implicitly introduces a more social behavior to the users with respect to competing for the UAV-mounted MEC servers’ computation resources. In order to properly model the users’ risk-aware behavior within the overall data offloading decision-making process the principles of Prospect Theory are adopted, while the exploitation of the available computation resources is considered based on the theory of the Tragedy of the Commons. Initially, the user’s prospect-theoretic utility function is formulated by quantifying the user’s risk seeking and loss aversion behavior, while taking into account the pricing mechanism. Accordingly, the users’ pricing and risk-aware data offloading problem is formulated as a distributed maximization problem of each user’s expected prospect-theoretic utility function and addressed as a non-cooperative more »
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