skip to main content

Title: Poly(ADP-ribose) binding and macroH2A mediate recruitment and functions of KDM5A at DNA lesions

The histone demethylase KDM5A erases histone H3 lysine 4 methylation, which is involved in transcription and DNA damage responses (DDRs). While DDR functions of KDM5A have been identified, how KDM5A recognizes DNA lesion sites within chromatin is unknown. Here, we identify two factors that act upstream of KDM5A to promote its association with DNA damage sites. We have identified a noncanonical poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR)–binding region unique to KDM5A. Loss of the PAR-binding region or treatment with PAR polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (PARPi’s) blocks KDM5A–PAR interactions and DNA repair functions of KDM5A. The histone variant macroH2A1.2 is also specifically required for KDM5A recruitment and function at DNA damage sites, including homology-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks and repression of transcription at DNA breaks. Overall, this work reveals the importance of PAR binding and macroH2A1.2 in KDM5A recognition of DNA lesion sites that drive transcriptional and repair activities at DNA breaks within chromatin that are essential for maintaining genome integrity.

 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Journal of Cell Biology
DOI PREFIX: 10.1083
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. DNA base damage arises frequently in living cells and needs to be removed by base excision repair (BER) to prevent mutagenesis and genome instability. Both the formation and repair of base damage occur in chromatin and are conceivably affected by DNA-binding proteins such as transcription factors (TFs). However, to what extent TF binding affects base damage distribution and BER in cells is unclear. Here, we used a genome-wide damage mapping method, N -methylpurine-sequencing (NMP-seq), and characterized alkylation damage distribution and BER at TF binding sites in yeast cells treated with the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). Our data show that alkylation damage formation was mainly suppressed at the binding sites of yeast TFs ARS binding factor 1 (Abf1) and rDNA enhancer binding protein 1 (Reb1), but individual hotspots with elevated damage levels were also found. Additionally, Abf1 and Reb1 binding strongly inhibits BER in vivo and in vitro, causing slow repair both within the core motif and its adjacent DNA. Repair of ultraviolet (UV) damage by nucleotide excision repair (NER) was also inhibited by TF binding. Interestingly, TF binding inhibits a larger DNA region for NER relative to BER. The observed effects are caused by the TF–DNA interaction, because damagemore »formation and BER can be restored by depletion of Abf1 or Reb1 protein from the nucleus. Thus, our data reveal that TF binding significantly modulates alkylation base damage formation and inhibits repair by the BER pathway. The interplay between base damage formation and BER may play an important role in affecting mutation frequency in gene regulatory regions.« less
  2. Abstract Expression of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) is a determinant of malignancy in gliomas through kynurenine (KYN) signaling. We report that inhibition of TDO activity attenuated recovery from replication stress and increased the genotoxic effects of bis-chloroethylnitrosourea (BCNU). Activation of the Chk1 arm of the replication stress response (RSR) was reduced when TDO activity was blocked prior to BCNU treatment, whereas phosphorylation of serine 33 (pS33) on replication protein A (RPA) was enhanced—indicative of increased fork collapse. Analysis of quantitative proteomic results revealed that TDO inhibition reduced nuclear 53BP1 and sirtuin levels. We confirmed that cells lacking TDO activity exhibited elevated gamma-H2AX signal and defective recruitment of 53BP1 to chromatin following BCNU treatment, which corresponded with delayed repair of DNA breaks. Addition of exogenous KYN increased the rate of break repair. TDO inhibition diminished SIRT7 deacetylase recruitment to chromatin, which increased histone H3K18 acetylation—a key mark involved in preventing 53BP1 recruitment to sites of DNA damage. TDO inhibition also sensitized cells to ionizing radiation (IR)-induced damage, but this effect did not involve altered 53BP1 recruitment. These experiments support a model where TDO-mediated KYN signaling helps fuel a robust response to replication stress and DNA damage.
  3. Abstract

    Here we present an approach that combines a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system that simultaneously targets hundreds of epigenetically diverse endogenous genomic sites with high-throughput sequencing to measure Cas9 dynamics and cellular responses at scale. This massive multiplexing of CRISPR is enabled by means of multi-target guide RNAs (mgRNAs), degenerate guide RNAs that direct Cas9 to a pre-determined number of well-mapped sites. mgRNAs uncovered generalizable insights into Cas9 binding and cleavage, revealing rapid post-cleavage Cas9 departure and repair factor loading at protospacer adjacent motif-proximal genomic DNA. Moreover, by bypassing confounding effects from guide RNA sequence, mgRNAs unveiled that Cas9 binding is enhanced at chromatin-accessible regions, and cleavage by bound Cas9 is more efficient near transcribed regions. Combined with light-mediated activation and deactivation of Cas9 activity, mgRNAs further enabled high-throughput study of the cellular response to double-strand breaks with high temporal resolution, revealing the presence, extent (under 2 kb) and kinetics (~1 h) of reversible DNA damage-induced chromatin decompaction. Altogether, this work establishes mgRNAs as a generalizable platform for multiplexing CRISPR and advances our understanding of intracellular Cas9 activity and the DNA damage response at endogenous loci.

  4. Histone variants fine-tune transcription, replication, DNA damage repair, and faithful chromosome segregation. Whether and how nucleosome variants encode unique mechanical properties to their cognate chromatin structures remains elusive. Here, using in silico and in vitro nanoindentation methods, extending to in vivo dissections, we report that histone variant nucleosomes are intrinsically more elastic than their canonical counterparts. Furthermore, binding proteins, which discriminate between histone variant nucleosomes, suppress this innate elasticity and also compact chromatin. Interestingly, when we overexpress the binding proteins in vivo, we also observe increased compaction of chromatin enriched for histone variant nucleosomes, correlating with diminished access. Taken together, these data suggest a plausible link between innate mechanical properties possessed by histone variant nucleosomes, the adaptability of chromatin states in vivo, and the epigenetic plasticity of the underlying locus.
  5. Co-option of transposable elements (TEs) to become part of existing or new enhancers is an important mechanism for evolution of gene regulation. However, contributions of lineage-specific TE insertions to recent regulatory adaptations remain poorly understood. Gibbons present a suitable model to study these contributions as they have evolved a lineage-specific TE calledLAVA(LINE-AluSz-VNTR-AluLIKE), which is still active in the gibbon genome. The LAVA retrotransposon is thought to have played a role in the emergence of the highly rearranged structure of the gibbon genome by disrupting transcription of cell cycle genes. In this study, we investigated whether LAVA may have also contributed to the evolution of gene regulation by adopting enhancer function. We characterized fixed and polymorphic LAVA insertions across multiple gibbons and found 96 LAVA elements overlapping enhancer chromatin states. Moreover, LAVA was enriched in multiple transcription factor binding motifs, was bound by an important transcription factor (PU.1), and was associated with higher levels of gene expression incis. We found gibbon-specific signatures of purifying/positive selection at 27 LAVA insertions. Two of these insertions were fixed in the gibbon lineage and overlapped with enhancer chromatin states, representing putative co-opted LAVA enhancers. These putative enhancers were located within genes encoding SETD2 and RAD9A,more »two proteins that facilitate accurate repair of DNA double-strand breaks and prevent chromosomal rearrangement mutations. Co-option of LAVA in these genes may have influenced regulation of processes that preserve genome integrity. Our findings highlight the importance of considering lineage-specific TEs in studying evolution of gene regulatory elements.

    « less