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Title: Few-shot learning for classification of novel macromolecular structures in cryo-electron tomograms
Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) provides 3D visualization of subcellular components in the near-native state and at sub-molecular resolutions in single cells, demonstrating an increasingly important role in structural biology in situ . However, systematic recognition and recovery of macromolecular structures in cryo-ET data remain challenging as a result of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), small sizes of macromolecules, and high complexity of the cellular environment. Subtomogram structural classification is an essential step for such task. Although acquisition of large amounts of subtomograms is no longer an obstacle due to advances in automation of data collection, obtaining the same number of structural labels is both computation and labor intensive. On the other hand, existing deep learning based supervised classification approaches are highly demanding on labeled data and have limited ability to learn about new structures rapidly from data containing very few labels of such new structures. In this work, we propose a novel approach for subtomogram classification based on few-shot learning. With our approach, classification of unseen structures in the training data can be conducted given few labeled samples in test data through instance embedding. Experiments were performed on both simulated and real datasets. Our experimental results show that we can make inference more » on new structures given only five labeled samples for each class with a competitive accuracy (> 0.86 on the simulated dataset with SNR = 0.1), or even one sample with an accuracy of 0.7644. The results on real datasets are also promising with accuracy > 0.9 on both conditions and even up to 1 on one of the real datasets. Our approach achieves significant improvement compared with the baseline method and has strong capabilities of generalizing to other cellular components. « less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Editors:
Haliloglu, Turkan
Award ID(s):
2007595 1949629
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10230120
Journal Name:
PLOS Computational Biology
Volume:
16
Issue:
11
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
e1008227
ISSN:
1553-7358
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  2. Abstract Motivation

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    Availabilityand implementation

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The breast corpus subset should be released by November 2021. By December 2021 we should also release the unannotated FCCC data. We are currently annotating urinary tract data as well. We expect to release about 5,600 processed TUH slides in this subset. We have an additional 53,000 unprocessed TUH slides digitized. Corpora of this size will stimulate the development of a new generation of deep learning technology. In clinical settings where resources are limited, an assistive diagnoses model could support pathologists’ workload and even help prioritize suspected cancerous cases. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This material is supported by the National Science Foundation under grants nos. CNS-1726188 and 1925494. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation. REFERENCES [1] N. Shawki et al., “The Temple University Digital Pathology Corpus,” in Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology: Emerging Trends in Research and Applications, 1st ed., I. Obeid, I. Selesnick, and J. Picone, Eds. New York City, New York, USA: Springer, 2020, pp. 67 104. https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783030368432. [2] J. Picone, T. Farkas, I. Obeid, and Y. Persidsky, “MRI: High Performance Digital Pathology Using Big Data and Machine Learning.” Major Research Instrumentation (MRI), Division of Computer and Network Systems, Award No. 1726188, January 1, 2018 – December 31, 2021. https://www. isip.piconepress.com/projects/nsf_dpath/. [3] A. Gulati et al., “Conformer: Convolution-augmented Transformer for Speech Recognition,” in Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH), 2020, pp. 5036-5040. https://doi.org/10.21437/interspeech.2020-3015. [4] C.-J. Wu et al., “Machine Learning at Facebook: Understanding Inference at the Edge,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA), 2019, pp. 331–344. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8675201. [5] I. Caswell and B. Liang, “Recent Advances in Google Translate,” Google AI Blog: The latest from Google Research, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://ai.googleblog.com/2020/06/recent-advances-in-google-translate.html. [Accessed: 01-Aug-2021]. [6] V. Khalkhali, N. Shawki, V. Shah, M. Golmohammadi, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Low Latency Real-Time Seizure Detection Using Transfer Deep Learning,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology Symposium (SPMB), 2021, pp. 1 7. https://www.isip. piconepress.com/publications/conference_proceedings/2021/ieee_spmb/eeg_transfer_learning/. [7] J. Picone, T. Farkas, I. Obeid, and Y. Persidsky, “MRI: High Performance Digital Pathology Using Big Data and Machine Learning,” Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, 2020. https://www.isip.piconepress.com/publications/reports/2020/nsf/mri_dpath/. [8] I. Hunt, S. Husain, J. Simons, I. Obeid, and J. Picone, “Recent Advances in the Temple University Digital Pathology Corpus,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Signal Processing in Medicine and Biology Symposium (SPMB), 2019, pp. 1–4. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9037859. [9] A. P. Martinez, C. Cohen, K. Z. Hanley, and X. (Bill) Li, “Estrogen Receptor and Cytokeratin 5 Are Reliable Markers to Separate Usual Ductal Hyperplasia From Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia and Low-Grade Ductal Carcinoma In Situ,” Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med., vol. 140, no. 7, pp. 686–689, Apr. 2016. https://doi.org/10.5858/arpa.2015-0238-OA.« less
  5. Abstract Background Cryo-electron tomography is an important and powerful technique to explore the structure, abundance, and location of ultrastructure in a near-native state. It contains detailed information of all macromolecular complexes in a sample cell. However, due to the compact and crowded status, the missing edge effect, and low signal to noise ratio (SNR), it is extremely challenging to recover such information with existing image processing methods. Cryo-electron tomogram simulation is an effective solution to test and optimize the performance of the above image processing methods. The simulated images could be regarded as the labeled data which covers a wide range of macromolecular complexes and ultrastructure. To approximate the crowded cellular environment, it is very important to pack these heterogeneous structures as tightly as possible. Besides, simulating non-deformable and deformable components under a unified framework also need to be achieved. Result In this paper, we proposed a unified framework for simulating crowded cryo-electron tomogram images including non-deformable macromolecular complexes and deformable ultrastructures. A macromolecule was approximated using multiple balls with fixed relative positions to reduce the vacuum volume. A ultrastructure, such as membrane and filament, was approximated using multiple balls with flexible relative positions so that this structure could deformmore »under force field. In the experiment, 400 macromolecules of 20 representative types were packed into simulated cytoplasm by our framework, and numerical verification proved that our method has a smaller volume and higher compression ratio than the baseline single-ball model. We also packed filaments, membranes and macromolecules together, to obtain a simulated cryo-electron tomogram image with deformable structures. The simulated results are closer to the real Cryo-ET, making the analysis more difficult. The DOG particle picking method and the image segmentation method are tested on our simulation data, and the experimental results show that these methods still have much room for improvement. Conclusion The proposed multi-ball model can achieve more crowded packaging results and contains richer elements with different properties to obtain more realistic cryo-electron tomogram simulation. This enables users to simulate cryo-electron tomogram images with non-deformable macromolecular complexes and deformable ultrastructures under a unified framework. To illustrate the advantages of our framework in improving the compression ratio, we calculated the volume of simulated macromolecular under our multi-ball method and traditional single-ball method. We also performed the packing experiment of filaments and membranes to demonstrate the simulation ability of deformable structures. Our method can be used to do a benchmark by generating large labeled cryo-ET dataset and evaluating existing image processing methods. Since the content of the simulated cryo-ET is more complex and crowded compared with previous ones, it will pose a greater challenge to existing image processing methods.« less