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Title: Effects of N -Substituents on the Solution Behavior of Poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate)s in Water: Upper and Lower Critical Solution Temperature Transitions
Award ID(s):
2004564 1607076
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
ACS Applied Polymer Materials
Page Range / eLocation ID:
867 to 878
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Abstract

    The quinary members in the solid solution Hf2Fe1−δRu5−xIrx+δB2(x=1–4, VE=63–66) have been investigated experimentally and computationally. They were synthesized via arc‐melting and analyzed by EDX and X‐ray diffraction. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations predicted a preference for magnetic ordering in all members, but with a strong competition between ferro‐ and antiferromagnetism arising from interchain Fe−Fe interactions. The spin exchange and magnetic anisotropy energies predicted the lowest magnetic hardness forx=1 and 3 and the highest forx=2. Magnetization measurements confirm the DFT predictions and demonstrate that the antiferromagnetic ordering (TN=55–70 K) found at low magnetic fields changed to ferromagnetic (TC=150–750 K) at higher fields, suggesting metamagnetic behavior for all samples. As predicted, Hf2FeRu3Ir2B2has the highest intrinsic coercivity (Hc=74 kA/m) reported to date for Ti3Co5B2‐type phases. Furthermore, all coercivities outperform that of ferromagnetic Hf2FeIr5B2, indicating the importance of AFM interactions in enhancing magnetic anisotropy in these materials. Importantly, two members (x=1 and 4) maintain intrinsic coercivities in the semi‐hard range at room temperature. This study opens an avenue for controlling magnetic hardness by modulating antagonistic AFM and FM interactions in low‐dimensional rare‐earth‐free magnetic materials.

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  2. Regulatory networks often converge on very similar cis sequences to drive transcriptional programs due to constraints on what transcription factors are present. To determine the role of constraint loss on cis element evolution, we examined the recent appearance of a thiamine starvation regulated promoter in Candida glabrata . This species lacks the ancestral transcription factor Thi2, but still has the transcription factor Pdc2, which regulates thiamine starvation genes, allowing us to determine the effect of constraint change on a new promoter. We identified two different cis elements in C. glabrata - one present in the evolutionarily recent gene called CgPMU3 , and the other element present in the other thiamine (THI) regulated genes. Reciprocal swaps of the cis elements and incorporation of the S. cerevisiae Thi2 transcription factor-binding site into these promoters demonstrate that the two elements are functionally different from one another. Thus, this loss of an imposed constraint on promoter function has generated a novel cis sequence, suggesting that loss of trans constraints can generate a non-convergent pathway with the same output. 
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