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Title: Homoeologous Recombination: A Novel and Efficient System for Broadening the Genetic Variability in Wheat
Gene transfer from wild wheat relatives to bread wheat is restricted to homologous recombination. The presence of the Pairing homoeologous 1 (Ph1) gene in the long arm of wheat chromosome 5B allows only homologous chromosomes to pair and recombine, resulting in diploid inheritance of polyploid wheat. Previously, we identified a potent homoeologous pairing promotor gene(s) (Hpp-5Mg); its carrier chromosome 5Mg derived from Aegilops geniculata and its wheat homoeologous chromosome 5D freely recombined in the presence of the Ph1 gene. In this study, we investigated the effect of Hpp-5Mg on homoeologous recombination in the absence of Ph1. In Hpp-5Mg/ph1bph1b plants, we observed a vast genome-wide increase in homoeologous recombination and multiple crossovers (CO), including CO breakpoints in proximal regions of the chromosomes where recombination is known to be suppressed. We tested the efficacy of Hpp-5Mg/ph1bph1b-induced homoeologous recombination by producing new recombinants for the wheat streak mosaic virus resistance gene, Wsm3, present in the wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium Robertsonian translocation (RobT T7BS.7S#3L). A recombination frequency of 6.5% was detected by screening the progenies double monosomic for T7BS.7S#3L and 7B by genomic in situ hybridization. This recombination frequency was about 100-fold higher compared with the recombinant frequency of 0.06% observed by using ph1b-induced homoeologous recombination alone. Our results indicate that chromosome 5Mg promotes homoeologous recombination between wheat and wild wheat relative chromosomes, which helps in the generation of pre-breeding materials thereby accelerating wheat crop improvement.  more » « less
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