Knowledge tracing is an essential and challenging task in intelligent tutoring systems, whose goal is to estimate students’ knowledge state based on their responses to questions. Although many models for knowledge tracing task are developed, most of them depend on either concepts or items as input and ignore the hierarchical structure of items, which provides valuable information for the prediction of student learning results. In this paper, we propose a novel deep hierarchical knowledge tracing (DHKT) model exploiting the hierarchical structure of items. In the proposed DHKT model, the hierarchical relations between concepts and items are modeled by the hinge loss on the inner product between the learned concept embeddings and item embeddings. Then the learned embeddings are fed into a neural network to model the learning process of students, which is used to make predictions. The prediction loss and the hinge loss are minimized simultaneously during training process.
Option Tracing: Beyond Correctness Analysis in Knowledge Tracing
Knowledge tracing refers to a family of methods that estimate each student’s knowledge component/skill mastery level from their past responses to questions. One key limitation of most existing knowledge tracing methods is that they can only estimate an overall knowledge level of a student per knowledge component/skill since they analyze only the (usually binary-valued) correctness of student responses. Therefore, it is hard to use them to diagnose specific student errors. In this paper, we extend existing knowledge tracing methods beyond correctness prediction to the task of predicting the exact option students select in multiple choice questions. We quantitatively evaluate the performance of our option tracing methods on two large-scale student response datasets. We also qualitatively evaluate their ability in identifying common student errors in the form of clusters of incorrect options across different questions that correspond to the same error.
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