skip to main content

Title: Genomic Analyses of Phenotypic Differences Between Native and Invasive Populations of Diffuse Knapweed (Centaurea diffusa)
Invasive species represent excellent opportunities to study the evolutionary potential of traits important to success in novel environments. Although some ecologically important traits have been identified in invasive species, little is typically known about the genetic mechanisms that underlie invasion success in non-model species. Here, we use a genome-wide association (GWAS) approach to identify the genetic basis of trait variation in the non-model, invasive, diffuse knapweed [ Centaurea diffusa Lam. (Asteraceae)]. To assist with this analysis, we have assembled the first draft genome reference and fully annotated plastome assembly for this species, and one of the first from this large, weedy, genus, which is of major ecological and economic importance. We collected phenotype data from 372 individuals from four native and four invasive populations of C. diffusa grown in a common environment. Using these individuals, we produced reduced-representation genotype-by-sequencing (GBS) libraries and identified 7,058 SNPs. We identify two SNPs associated with leaf width in these populations, a trait which significantly varies between native and invasive populations. In this rosette forming species, increased leaf width is a major component of increased biomass, a common trait in invasive plants correlated with increased fitness. Finally, we use annotations from Arabidopsis thaliana to identify more » 98 candidate genes that are near the associated SNPs and highlight several good candidates for leaf width variation. « less
Authors:
; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1757324
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10252779
Journal Name:
Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution
Volume:
8
ISSN:
2296-701X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Cooke, Steve (Ed.)
    Abstract Models of species response to climate change often assume that physiological traits are invariant across populations. Neglecting potential intraspecific variation may overlook the possibility that some populations are more resilient or susceptible than others, creating inaccurate predictions of climate impacts. In addition, phenotypic plasticity can contribute to trait variation and may mediate sensitivity to climate. Quantifying such forms of intraspecific variation can improve our understanding of how climate can affect ecologically important species, such as invasive predators. Here, we quantified thermal performance (tolerance, acclimation capacity, developmental traits) across seven populations of the predatory marine snail (Urosalpinx cinerea) from native Atlantic and non-native Pacific coast populations in the USA. Using common garden experiments, we assessed the effects of source population and developmental acclimation on thermal tolerance and developmental traits of F1 snails. We then estimated climate sensitivity by calculating warming tolerance (thermal tolerance − habitat temperature), using field environmental data. We report that low-latitude populations had greater thermal tolerance than their high latitude counterparts. However, these same low-latitude populations exhibited decreased thermal tolerance when exposed to environmentally realistic higher acclimation temperatures. Low-latitude native populations had the greatest climate sensitivity (habitat temperatures near thermal limits). In contrast, invasive Pacific snails had the lowestmore »climate sensitivity, suggesting that these populations are likely to persist and drive negative impacts on native biodiversity. Developmental rate significantly increased in embryos sourced from populations with greater habitat temperature but had variable effects on clutch size and hatching success. Thus, warming can produce widely divergent responses within the same species, resulting in enhanced impacts in the non-native range and extirpation in the native range. Broadly, our results highlight how intraspecific variation can alter management decisions, as this may clarify whether management efforts should be focused on many or only a few populations.« less
  2. High rates of dispersal can breakdown coadapted gene complexes. However, concentrated genomic architecture (i.e., genomic islands of divergence) can suppress recombination to allow evolution of local adaptations despite high gene flow. Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) is a highly dispersive anadromous fish. Observed trait diversity and evidence for genetic basis of traits suggests it may be locally adapted. We addressed whether concentrated genomic architecture could influence local adaptation for Pacific lamprey. Using two new whole genome assemblies and genotypes from 7,716 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci in 518 individuals from across the species range, we identified four genomic islands of divergence (on chromosomes 01, 02, 04, and 22). We determined robust phenotype-by-genotype relationships by testing multiple traits across geographic sites. These trait associations probably explain genomic divergence across the species’ range. We genotyped a subset of 302 broadly distributed SNPs in 2,145 individuals for association testing for adult body size, sexual maturity, migration distance and timing, adult swimming ability, and larval growth. Body size traits were strongly associated with SNPs on chromosomes 02 and 04. Moderate associations also implicated SNPs on chromosome 01 as being associated with variation in female maturity. Finally, we used candidate SNPs to extrapolate a heterogeneous spatiotemporalmore »distribution of these predicted phenotypes based on independent data sets of larval and adult collections. These maturity and body size results guide future elucidation of factors driving regional optimization of these traits for fitness. Pacific lamprey is culturally important and imperiled. This research addresses biological uncertainties that challenge restoration efforts.« less
  3. Hybridization is among the evolutionary mechanisms most frequently hypothesized to drive the success of invasive species, in part because hybrids are common in invasive populations. One explanation for this pattern is that biological invasions coincide with a change in selection pressures that limit hybridization in the native range. To investigate this possibility, we studied the introduction of the brown anole (Anolis sagrei) in the southeastern United States. We find that native populations are highly genetically structured. In contrast, all invasive populations show evidence of hybridization among native-range lineages. Temporal sampling in the invasive range spanning 15 y showed that invasive genetic structure has stabilized, indicating that large-scale contemporary gene flow is limited among invasive populations and that hybrid ancestry is maintained. Additionally, our results are consistent with hybrid persistence in invasive populations resulting from changes in natural selection that occurred during invasion. Specifically, we identify a large-effect X chromosome locus associated with variation in limb length, a well-known adaptive trait in anoles, and show that this locus is often under selection in the native range, but rarely so in the invasive range. Moreover, we find that the effect size of alleles at this locus on limb length is much reducedmore »in hybrids among divergent lineages, consistent with epistatic interactions. Thus, in the native range, epistasis manifested in hybrids can strengthen extrinsic postmating isolation. Together, our findings show how a change in natural selection can contribute to an increase in hybridization in invasive populations.

    « less
  4. Abstract The genetic basis of traits shapes and constrains how adaptation proceeds in nature; rapid adaptation can proceed using stores of polygenic standing genetic variation or hard selective sweeps, and increasing polygenicity fuels genetic redundancy, reducing gene re-use (genetic convergence). Guppy life history traits evolve rapidly and convergently among natural high- and low-predation environments in northern Trinidad. This system has been studied extensively at the phenotypic level, but little is known about the underlying genetic architecture. Here, we use four independent F2 QTL crosses to examine the genetic basis of seven (five female, two male) guppy life history phenotypes and discuss how these genetic architectures may facilitate or constrain rapid adaptation and convergence. We use RAD-sequencing data (16,539 SNPs) from 370 male and 267 female F2 individuals. We perform linkage mapping, estimates of genome-wide and per-chromosome heritability (multi-locus associations), and QTL mapping (single-locus associations). Our results are consistent with architectures of many loci of small-effect for male age and size at maturity and female interbrood period. Male trait associations are clustered on specific chromosomes, but female interbrood period exhibits a weak genome-wide signal suggesting a potentially highly polygenic component. Offspring weight and female size at maturity are also associated withmore »a single significant QTL each. These results suggest rapid, repeatable phenotypic evolution of guppies may be facilitated by polygenic trait architectures, but subsequent genetic redundancy may limit gene re-use across populations, in agreement with an absence of strong signatures of genetic convergence from recent analyses of wild guppies.« less
  5. Abstract The crop wild relative Fragaria nilgerrensis is adapted to a variety of diverse habitats across its native range in China. Thus, discoveries made in this species could serve as a useful guide in the development of new superior strawberry cultivars that are resilient to new or variable environments. However, the genetic diversity and genetic architecture of traits in this species underlying important adaptive traits remain poorly understood. Here, we used whole-genome resequencing data from 193 F. nilgerrensis individuals spanning the distribution range in China to investigate the genetic diversity, population structure and genomic basis of local adaptation. We identified four genetic groups, with the western group located in Hengduan Mountains exhibiting the highest genetic diversity. Redundancy analysis suggested that both environment and geographic variables shaped a significant proportion of the genomic variation. Our analyses revealed that the environmental difference explains more of the observed genetic variation than geographic distance. This suggests that adaptation to distinct habitats, which present a unique combination of abiotic factors, likely drove genetic differentiation. Lastly, by implementing selective sweep scans and genome–environment association analysis throughout the genome, we identified the genetic variation associated with local adaptation and investigated the functions of putative candidate genes inmore »F. nilgerrensis.« less