- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Machine Learning
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 651 to 674
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Collaborative machine learning and related techniques such as federated learning allow multiple participants, each with his own training dataset, to build a joint model by training locally and periodically exchanging model updates. We demonstrate that these updates leak unintended information about participants' training data and develop passive and active inference attacks to exploit this leakage. First, we show that an adversarial participant can infer the presence of exact data points -- for example, specific locations -- in others' training data (i.e., membership inference). Then, we show how this adversary can infer properties that hold only for a subset of the training data and are independent of the properties that the joint model aims to capture. For example, he can infer when a specific person first appears in the photos used to train a binary gender classifier. We evaluate our attacks on a variety of tasks, datasets, and learning configurations, analyze their limitations, and discuss possible defenses.
Data poisoning attacks and backdoor attacks aim to corrupt a machine learning classifier via modifying, adding, and/or removing some carefully selected training examples, such that the corrupted classifier makes incorrect predictions as the attacker desires. The key idea of state-of-the-art certified defenses against data poisoning attacks and backdoor attacks is to create a majority vote mechanism to predict the label of a testing example. Moreover, each voter is a base classifier trained on a subset of the training dataset. Classical simple learning algorithms such as k nearest neighbors (kNN) and radius nearest neighbors (rNN) have intrinsic majority vote mechanisms. In this work, we show that the intrinsic majority vote mechanisms in kNN and rNN already provide certified robustness guarantees against data poisoning attacks and backdoor attacks. Moreover, our evaluation results on MNIST and CIFAR10 show that the intrinsic certified robustness guarantees of kNN and rNN outperform those provided by state-of-the-art certified defenses. Our results serve as standard baselines for future certified defenses against data poisoning attacks and backdoor attacks.
The pervasiveness of neural networks (NNs) in critical computer vision and image processing applications makes them very attractive for adversarial manipulation. A large body of existing research thoroughly investigates two broad categories of attacks targeting the integrity of NN models. The first category of attacks, commonly called Adversarial Examples, perturbs the model's inference by carefully adding noise into input examples. In the second category of attacks, adversaries try to manipulate the model during the training process by implanting Trojan backdoors. Researchers show that such attacks pose severe threats to the growing applications of NNs and propose several defenses against each attack type individually. However, such one-sided defense approaches leave potentially unknown risks in real-world scenarios when an adversary can unify different attacks to create new and more lethal ones bypassing existing defenses. In this work, we show how to jointly exploit adversarial perturbation and model poisoning vulnerabilities to practically launch a new stealthy attack, dubbed AdvTrojan. AdvTrojan is stealthy because it can be activated only when: 1) a carefully crafted adversarial perturbation is injected into the input examples during inference, and 2) a Trojan backdoor is implanted during the training process of the model. We leverage adversarial noise in themore »
Electronic medical records (EMRs) can support medical research and discovery, but privacy risks limit the sharing of such data on a wide scale. Various approaches have been developed to mitigate risk, including record simulation via generative adversarial networks (GANs). While showing promise in certain application domains, GANs lack a principled approach for EMR data that induces subpar simulation. In this article, we improve EMR simulation through a novel pipeline that (1) enhances the learning model, (2) incorporates evaluation criteria for data utility that informs learning, and (3) refines the training process.
Materials and Methods
We propose a new electronic health record generator using a GAN with a Wasserstein divergence and layer normalization techniques. We designed 2 utility measures to characterize similarity in the structural properties of real and simulated EMRs in the original and latent space, respectively. We applied a filtering strategy to enhance GAN training for low-prevalence clinical concepts. We evaluated the new and existing GANs with utility and privacy measures (membership and disclosure attacks) using billing codes from over 1 million EMRs at Vanderbilt University Medical Center.
The proposed model outperformed the state-of-the-art approaches with significant improvement in retaining the nature of real records, including prediction performance andmore »
These findings illustrate that EMR simulation through GANs can be substantially improved through more appropriate training, modeling, and evaluation criteria.
We present a framework, which we call Molecule Deep
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