skip to main content

Title: Ab initio molecular dynamics study of sodium NMR chemical shifts in the methylamine solution of [Na + [2.2.2]cryptand Na ]
The sodium anion (Na − ) was once thought to behave like a ‘genuine’ anion, with both the [Ne] core and the 3s valence shell interacting very weakly with their environments. In the present work, following a recent study of the surprisingly small quadrupolar line widths of Na − , NMR shielding calculations were carried out for the Na − /Na + [2.2.2]cryptand system solvated in methylamine, based on ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, followed by detailed analyses of the shielding constants. The results confirm that Na − does not act like a quasi-free ion that interacts only weakly with its surroundings. Rather, the filled 3s shell of Na − interacts strongly with its chemical environment, but only weakly with the ion's own core and the nucleus, and it isolates the core from the chemical environment. As a consequence, the Na − ion appears in NMR experiments like a free ion.
Authors:
; ;
Award ID(s):
1855470
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10253408
Journal Name:
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
Volume:
23
Issue:
1
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
339 to 346
ISSN:
1463-9076
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. The discovery of singular organic radical ligands is a formidable challenge due to high reactivity arising from the unpaired electron. Matching radical ligands with metal ions to engender magnetic coupling is crucial for eliciting preeminent physical properties such as conductivity and magnetism that are crucial for future technologies. The metal-radical approach is especially important for the lanthanide ions exhibiting deeply buried 4f-orbitals. The radicals must possess a high spin density on the donor atoms to promote strong coupling. Combining diamagnetic 89 Y ( I = 1/2) with organic radicals allows for invaluable insight into the electronic structure and spin-density distribution. This approach is hitherto underutilized, possibly owing to the challenging synthesis and purification of such molecules. Herein, evidence of an unprecedented bisbenzimidazole radical anion (Bbim 3− ˙) along with its metalation in the form of an yttrium complex, [K(crypt-222)][(Cp* 2 Y) 2 (μ-Bbim˙)] is provided. Access of Bbim 3− ˙ was feasible through double-coordination to the Lewis acidic metal ion and subsequent one-electron reduction, which is remarkable as Bbim 2− was explicitly stated to be redox-inactive in closed-shell complexes. Two molecules containing Bbim 2− (1) and Bbim 3− ˙ (2), respectively, were thoroughly investigated by X-ray crystallography, NMR and UV/Vismore »spectroscopy. Electrochemical studies unfolded a quasi-reversible feature and emphasize the role of the metal centre for the Bbim redox-activity as neither the free ligand nor the Bbim 2− complex led to analogous CV results. Excitingly, a strong delocalization of the electron density through the Bbim 3− ˙ ligand was revealed via temperature-dependent EPR spectroscopy and confirmed through DFT calculations and magnetometry, rendering Bbim 3− ˙ an ideal candidate for single-molecule magnet design.« less
  2. With a goal of determining an absolute free energy scale for ion hydration, quasi-chemical theory and ab initio quantum mechanical simulations are employed to obtain an accurate value for the bulk hydration free energy of the Na+ion. The free energy is partitioned into three parts: 1) the inner-shell or chemical contribution that includes direct interactions of the ion with nearby waters, 2) the packing free energy that is the work to produce a cavity of size λ in water, and 3) the long-range contribution that involves all interactions outside the inner shell. The interfacial potential contribution to the free energy resides in the long-range term. By averaging cation and anion data for that contribution, cumulant terms of all odd orders in the electrostatic potential are removed. The computed total is then the bulk hydration free energy. Comparison with the experimentally derived real hydration free energy produces an effective surface potential of water in the range −0.4 to −0.5 V. The result is consistent with a variety of experiments concerning acid–base chemistry, ion distributions near hydrophobic interfaces, and electric fields near the surface of water droplets.

  3. Abstract

    Two orthologues of the gene encoding the Na+-Clcotransporter (NCC), termednccaandnccb, were found in the sea lamprey genome. No gene encoding the Na+-K+-2Clcotransporter 2 (nkcc2) was identified. In a phylogenetic comparison among other vertebrate NCC and NKCC sequences, the sea lamprey NCCs occupied basal positions within the NCC clades. In freshwater,nccamRNA was found only in the gill andnccbonly in the intestine, whereas both were found in the kidney. IntestinalnccbmRNA levels increased during late metamorphosis coincident with salinity tolerance. Acclimation to seawater increasednccbmRNA levels in the intestine and kidney. Electrophysiological analysis of intestinal tissue ex vivo showed this tissue was anion absorptive. After seawater acclimation, the proximal intestine became less anion absorptive, whereas the distal intestine remained unchanged. Luminal application of indapamide (an NCC inhibitor) resulted in 73% and 30% inhibition of short-circuit current (Isc) in the proximal and distal intestine, respectively. Luminal application of bumetanide (an NKCC inhibitor) did not affect intestinal Isc. Indapamide also inhibited intestinal water absorption. Our results indicate that NCCb is likely the key ion cotransport protein for ion uptake by the lamprey intestine that facilitates water absorption in seawater. As such, the preparatory increases in intestinalnccbmRNA levels during metamorphosis of sea lamprey are likely criticalmore »to development of whole animal salinity tolerance.

    « less
  4. The origin in deshielding of 29 Si NMR chemical shifts in R 3 Si–X, where X = H, OMe, Cl, OTf, [CH 6 B 11 X 6 ], toluene, and O X (O X = surface oxygen), as well as i Pr 3 Si + and Mes 3 Si + were studied using DFT methods. At the M06-L/6-31G(d,p) level of theory the geometry optimized structures agree well with those obtained experimentally. The trends in 29 Si NMR chemical shift also reproduce experimental trends; i Pr 3 Si–H has the most shielded 29 Si NMR chemical shift and free i Pr 3 Si + or isolable Mes 3 Si + have the most deshielded 29 Si NMR chemical shift. Natural localized molecular orbital (NLMO) analysis of the contributions to paramagnetic shielding ( σ p ) in these compounds shows that Si–R (R = alkyl, H) bonding orbitals are the major contributors to deshielding in this series. The Si–R bonding orbitals are coupled to the empty p-orbital in i Pr 3 Si + or Mes 3 Si + , or to the orbital in R 3 Si–X. This trend also applies to surface bound R 3 Si–O X . This model alsomore »explains chemical shift trends in recently isolated t Bu 2 SiH 2 + , t BuSiH 2 + , and SiH 3 + that show more shielded 29 Si NMR signals than R 3 Si + species. There is no correlation between isotropic 29 Si NMR chemical shift and charge at silicon.« less
  5. After release into the aquatic environment, engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) undergo complex chemical and physical transformations that alter their environmental fate and toxicity to aquatic organisms. Hyalella azteca are sediment-dwelling amphipods predicted to have a high exposure level to ENMs and have previously shown to be highly sensitive to ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). To investigate the impacts of environmentally transformed ZnO NPs and determine the route of uptake for these particles, we exposed H. azteca to ZnSO 4 , ZnO NPs, and environmental aged ZnO NPs which resulted in three types of particles: 30 nm ZnO–Zn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 core–shell structures (p8-ZnO NPs), micron scale hopeite-like phase Zn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ·4H 2 O (p6-ZnO NPs), and ZnS nano-clusters (s-ZnO NPs). Treatments included freshwater, saltwater (3 ppt), and the presence of sediment, with a final treatment where animals were contained within mesh baskets to prevent burrowing in the sediment. Dissolution was close to 100% for the pristine ZnO NPs and phosphate transformed NPs, while s-ZnO NPs resulted in only 20% dissolution in the water only exposures. In the freshwater exposure, the pristine and phosphate transformed ZnO NPs were more toxic (LC 50 values 0.11–0.18 mg L −1 )more »than ZnSO 4 (LC 50 = 0.26 mg L −1 ) and the s-ZnO NPs (LC 50 = 0.29 mg L −1 ). Saltwater treatments reduced the toxicity of ZnSO 4 and all the ZnO NPs. In the presence of sediment, water column concentrations of Zn were reduced to 10% nominal concentrations and toxicity in the sediment with basket treatment was similarly reduced by a factor of 10. Toxicity was further reduced in the sediment only treatments where the sediments appeared to provide a refuge for H. azteca . In addition, particle specific differences in toxicity were less apparent in the presence of sediment. Bioaccumulation was similar across the different Zn exposures, but decreased with reduced toxicity in the saltwater and sediment treatments. Overall, the results suggest that H. azteca is exposed to ZnO NPs through the water column and NP transformations in the presence of phosphate do not reduce their toxicity. Sulfidized ZnO NPs have reduced toxicity, but their similar level of bioaccumulation in H. azteca suggests that trophic transfer of these particles will occur.« less