skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 5:00 PM ET until 11:00 PM ET on Friday, June 21 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


Title: Isolation of the elusive bisbenzimidazole Bbim 3− ˙ radical anion and its employment in a metal complex
The discovery of singular organic radical ligands is a formidable challenge due to high reactivity arising from the unpaired electron. Matching radical ligands with metal ions to engender magnetic coupling is crucial for eliciting preeminent physical properties such as conductivity and magnetism that are crucial for future technologies. The metal-radical approach is especially important for the lanthanide ions exhibiting deeply buried 4f-orbitals. The radicals must possess a high spin density on the donor atoms to promote strong coupling. Combining diamagnetic 89 Y ( I = 1/2) with organic radicals allows for invaluable insight into the electronic structure and spin-density distribution. This approach is hitherto underutilized, possibly owing to the challenging synthesis and purification of such molecules. Herein, evidence of an unprecedented bisbenzimidazole radical anion (Bbim 3− ˙) along with its metalation in the form of an yttrium complex, [K(crypt-222)][(Cp* 2 Y) 2 (μ-Bbim˙)] is provided. Access of Bbim 3− ˙ was feasible through double-coordination to the Lewis acidic metal ion and subsequent one-electron reduction, which is remarkable as Bbim 2− was explicitly stated to be redox-inactive in closed-shell complexes. Two molecules containing Bbim 2− (1) and Bbim 3− ˙ (2), respectively, were thoroughly investigated by X-ray crystallography, NMR and UV/Vis spectroscopy. Electrochemical studies unfolded a quasi-reversible feature and emphasize the role of the metal centre for the Bbim redox-activity as neither the free ligand nor the Bbim 2− complex led to analogous CV results. Excitingly, a strong delocalization of the electron density through the Bbim 3− ˙ ligand was revealed via temperature-dependent EPR spectroscopy and confirmed through DFT calculations and magnetometry, rendering Bbim 3− ˙ an ideal candidate for single-molecule magnet design.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1919565
NSF-PAR ID:
10346970
Author(s) / Creator(s):
;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Chemical Science
Volume:
13
Issue:
20
ISSN:
2041-6520
Page Range / eLocation ID:
5818 to 5829
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Introducing spin onto organic ligands that are coordinated to rare earth metal ions allows direct exchange with metal spin centres. This is particularly relevant for the deeply buried 4f-orbitals of the lanthanide ions that can give rise to unparalleled magnetic properties. For efficacy of exchange coupling, the donor atoms of the radical ligand require high-spin density. Such molecules are extremely rare owing to their reactive nature that renders isolation and purification difficult. Here, we demonstrate that a 2,2′-azopyridyl (abpy) radical ( S = 1/2) bound to the rare earth metal yttrium can be realized. This molecule represents the first rare earth metal complex containing an abpy radical and is unambigously characterized by X-ray crystallography, NMR, UV-Vis-NIR, and IR spectroscopy. In addition, the most stable isotope 89 Y with a natural abundance of 100% and a nuclear spin of ½ allows an in-depth analysis of the yttrium–radical complex via EPR and HYSCORE spectroscopy. Further insight into the electronic ground state of the radical azobispyridine-coordinated metal complex was realized through unrestricted DFT calculations, which suggests that the unpaired spin density of the SOMO is heavily localized on the azo and pyridyl nitrogen atoms. The experimental results are supported by NBO calculations and give a comprehensive picture of the spin density of the azopyridyl ancillary ligand. This unexplored azopyridyl radical anion in heavy element chemistry bears crucial implications for the design of molecule-based magnets particularly comprising anisotropic lanthanide ions. 
    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    The use of radical bridging ligands to facilitate strong magnetic exchange between paramagnetic metal centers represents a key step toward the realization of single-molecule magnets with high operating temperatures. Moreover, bridging ligands that allow the incorporation of high-anisotropy metal ions are particularly advantageous. Toward these ends, we report the synthesis and detailed characterization of the dinuclear hydroquinone-bridged complexes [(Me 6 tren) 2 MII2(C 6 H 4 O 2 2− )] 2+ (Me 6 tren = tris(2-dimethylaminoethyl)amine; M = Fe, Co, Ni) and their one-electron-oxidized, semiquinone-bridged analogues [(Me 6 tren) 2 MII2(C 6 H 4 O 2 − ˙)] 3+ . Single-crystal X-ray diffraction shows that the Me 6 tren ligand restrains the metal centers in a trigonal bipyramidal geometry, and coordination of the bridging hydro- or semiquinone ligand results in a parallel alignment of the three-fold axes. We quantify the p -benzosemiquinone–transition metal magnetic exchange coupling for the first time and find that the nickel( ii ) complex exhibits a substantial J < −600 cm −1 , resulting in a well-isolated S = 3/2 ground state even as high as 300 K. The iron and cobalt complexes feature metal–semiquinone exchange constants of J = −144(1) and −252(2) cm −1 , respectively, which are substantially larger in magnitude than those reported for related bis(bidentate) semiquinoid complexes. Finally, the semiquinone-bridged cobalt and nickel complexes exhibit field-induced slow magnetic relaxation, with relaxation barriers of U eff = 22 and 46 cm −1 , respectively. Remarkably, the Orbach relaxation observed for the Ni complex is in stark contrast to the fast processes that dominate relaxation in related mononuclear Ni II complexes, thus demonstrating that strong magnetic coupling can engender slow magnetic relaxation. 
    more » « less
  3. Radicals and other open-shell molecules play a central role in chemical transformations and redox chemistry. While radicals are often highly reactive, stable radical systems are desirable for a range of potential applications, ranging from materials chemistry and catalysis to spintronics and quantum information. Here we investigate the ultrafast properties of a stable radical system with temperature-dependent spin-tunable properties. This radical complex, Cu(II) hexaethyl tripyrrin-1,14-dione, accommodates unpaired electrons localized on both the copper metal center and the tripyrrolic ligand. The unusual combination of two unpaired electrons and high stability in this radical molecule enable switchable temperature-dependent spin coupling. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of Cu(II) hexaethyl tripyrrin-1,14-dione were collected at room temperature and at 77 K. At room temperature, the molecules are present as monomers and have short picosecond lifetimes. At 77 K, the molecules are present in a dimer form mediated by ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic coupling. This reversible spin-driven dimerization changes the optical properties of the system, generating long-lived excitonic states. 
    more » « less
  4. null (Ed.)
    Achieving a molecular-level understanding of how the structures and compositions of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) influence their charge carrier concentration and charge transport mechanism—the two key parameters of electrical conductivity—is essential for the successful development of electrically conducting MOFs, which have recently emerged as one of the most coveted functional materials due to their diverse potential applications in advanced electronics and energy technologies. Herein, we have constructed four new alkali metal (Na, K, Rb, and Cs) frameworks based on an electron-rich tetrathiafulvalene tetracarboxylate (TTFTC) ligand, which formed continuous π-stacks, albeit with different π–π-stacking and S⋯S distances ( d π–π and d S⋯S ). These MOFs also contained different amounts of aerobically oxidized TTFTC˙ + radical cations that were quantified by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Density functional theory calculations and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy demonstrated that depending on the π–π-interaction and TTFTC˙ + population, these MOFs enjoyed varying degrees of TTFTC/TTFTC˙ + intervalence charge transfer (IVCT) interactions, which commensurately affected their electronic and optical band gaps and electrical conductivity. Having the shortest d π–π (3.39 Å) and the largest initial TTFTC˙ + population (∼23%), the oxidized Na-MOF 1-ox displayed the narrowest band gap (1.33 eV) and the highest room temperature electrical conductivity (3.6 × 10 −5 S cm −1 ), whereas owing to its longest d π–π (3.68 Å) and a negligible TTFTC˙ + population, neutral Cs-MOF 4 exhibited the widest band gap (2.15 eV) and the lowest electrical conductivity (1.8 × 10 −7 S cm −1 ). The freshly prepared but not optimally oxidized K-MOF 2 and Rb-MOF 3 initially displayed intermediate band gaps and conductivity, however, upon prolonged aerobic oxidation, which raised the TTFTC˙ + population to saturation levels (∼25 and 10%, respectively), the resulting 2-ox and 3-ox displayed much narrower band gaps (∼1.35 eV) and higher electrical conductivity (6.6 × 10 −5 and 4.7 × 10 −5 S cm −1 , respectively). The computational studies indicated that charge movement in these MOFs occurred predominantly through the π-stacked ligands, while the experimental results displayed the combined effects of π–π-interactions, TTFTC˙ + population, and TTFTC/TTFTC˙ + IVCT interaction on their electronic and optical properties, demonstrating that IVCT interactions between the mixed-valent ligands could be exploited as an effective design strategy to develop electrically conducting MOFs. 
    more » « less
  5. The tripyrrin-1,14-dione biopyrrin, which shares the scaffold of several naturally occurring heme metabolites, is a redox-active platform for metal coordination. We report the synthesis of square planar platinum( ii ) tripyrrindiones, in which the biopyrrin binds as a tridentate radical and the fourth coordination position is occupied by either aqua or tert -butyl isocyanide ligands. These complexes are stable through chromatographic purification and exposure to air. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data and density functional theory (DFT) analysis confirm that the spin density is located predominantly on the tripyrrindione ligand. Pancake bonding in solution between the Pt( ii ) tripyrrindione radicals leads to the formation of diamagnetic π dimers at low temperatures. The identity of the monodentate ligand ( i.e. , aqua vs . isocyanide) affects both the thermodynamic parameters of dimerization and the tripyrrindione-based redox processes in these complexes. Isolation and structural characterization of the oxidized complexes revealed stacking of the diamagnetic tripyrrindiones in the solid state as well as a metallophilic Pt( ii )−Pt( ii ) contact in the case of the aqua complex. Overall, the properties of Pt( ii ) tripyrrindiones, including redox potentials and intermolecular interactions in solution and in the solid state, are modulated through easily accessible changes in the redox state of the biopyrrin ligand or the nature of the monodentate ligand. 
    more » « less