- NSF-PAR ID:
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- npj Quantum Information
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Understanding the thermalization dynamics of quantum many-body systems at the microscopic level is among the central challenges of modern statistical physics. Here we experimentally investigate individual spin dynamics in a two-dimensional ensemble of electron spins on the surface of a diamond crystal. We use a near-surface NV center as a nanoscale magnetic sensor to probe correlation dynamics of individual spins in a dipolar interacting surface spin ensemble. We observe that the relaxation rate for each spin is significantly slower than the naive expectation based on independently estimated dipolar interaction strengths with nearest neighbors and is strongly correlated with the timescale of the local magnetic field fluctuation. We show that this anomalously slow relaxation rate is due to the presence of strong dynamical disorder and present a quantitative explanation based on dynamic resonance counting. Finally, we use resonant spin-lock driving to control the effective strength of the local magnetic fields and reveal the role of the dynamical disorder in different regimes. Our work paves the way towards microscopic study and control of quantum thermalization in strongly interacting disordered spin ensembles.more » « less
A broad effort is underway to improve the sensitivity of NMR through the use of dynamic nuclear polarization. Nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond offer an appealing platform because these paramagnetic defects can be optically polarized efficiently at room temperature. However, work thus far has been mainly limited to single crystals, because most polarization transfer protocols are sensitive to misalignment between the NV and magnetic field axes. Here we study the spin dynamics of NV−13C pairs in the simultaneous presence of optical excitation and microwave frequency sweeps at low magnetic fields. We show that a subtle interplay between illumination intensity, frequency sweep rate, and hyperfine coupling strength leads to efficient, sweep-direction-dependent13C spin polarization over a broad range of orientations of the magnetic field. In particular, our results strongly suggest that finely tuned, moderately coupled nuclear spins are key to the hyperpolarization process, which makes this mechanism distinct from other known dynamic polarization channels. These findings pave the route to applications where powders are intrinsically advantageous, including the hyperpolarization of target fluids in contact with the diamond surface or the use of hyperpolarized particles as contrast agents for in vivo imaging.
Employing the probabilistic nature of unstable nano-magnet switching has recently emerged as a path towards unconventional computational systems such as neuromorphic or Bayesian networks. In this letter, we demonstrate proof-of-concept stochastic binary operation using hard axis initialization of nano-magnets and control of their output state probability (activation function) by means of input currents. Our method provides a natural path towards addition of weighted inputs from various sources, mimicking the integration function of neurons. In our experiment, spin orbit torque (SOT) is employed to “drive” nano-magnets with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) -to their metastable state, i.e. in-plane hard axis. Next, the probability of relaxing into one magnetization state (+mi) or the other (−mi) is controlled using an Oersted field generated by an electrically isolated current loop, which acts as a “charge” input to the device. The final state of the magnet is read out by the anomalous Hall effect (AHE), demonstrating that the magnetization can be probabilistically manipulated and output through charge currents, closing the loop from charge-to-spin and spin-to-charge conversion. Based on these building blocks, a two-node directed network is successfully demonstrated where the status of the second node is determined by the probabilistic output of the previous node and a weighted connection between them. We have also studied the effects of various magnetic properties, such as magnet size and anisotropic field on the stochastic operation of individual devices through Monte Carlo simulations of Landau Lifshitz Gilbert (LLG) equation. The three-terminal stochastic devices demonstrated here are a critical step towards building energy efficient spin based neural networks and show the potential for a new application space.
Novel noncollinear antiferromagnets with spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking, nontrivial band topology, and unconventional transport properties have received immense research interest over the past decade due to their rich physics and enormous promise in technological applications. One of the central focuses in this emerging field is exploring the relationship between the microscopic magnetic structure and exotic material properties. Here, the nanoscale imaging of both spin-orbit-torque-induced deterministic magnetic switching and chiral spin rotation in noncollinear antiferromagnet Mn3Sn films using nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers is reported. Direct evidence of the off-resonance dipole-dipole coupling between the spin dynamics in Mn3Sn and proximate NV centers is also demonstrated with NV relaxometry measurements. These results demonstrate the unique capabilities of NV centers in accessing the local information of the magnetic order and dynamics in these emergent quantum materials and suggest new opportunities for investigating the interplay between topology and magnetism in a broad range of topological magnets.more » « less
Phonons are considered to be universal quantum transducers due to their ability to couple to a wide variety of quantum systems. Among these systems, solid-state point defect spins are known for being long-lived optically accessible quantum memories. Recently, it has been shown that inversion-symmetric defects in diamond, such as the negatively charged silicon vacancy center (SiV), feature spin qubits that are highly susceptible to strain. Here, we leverage this strain response to achieve coherent and low-power acoustic control of a single SiV spin, and perform acoustically driven Ramsey interferometry of a single spin. Our results demonstrate an efficient method of spin control for these systems, offering a path towards strong spin-phonon coupling and phonon-mediated hybrid quantum systems.