skip to main content

Title: The ROSAT Raster survey in the north ecliptic pole field: X-ray catalogue and optical identifications
The north ecliptic pole (NEP) is an important region for extragalactic surveys. Deep and wide contiguous surveys are being performed by several space observatories, most currently with the eROSITA telescope. Several more are planned for the near future. We analyse all the ROSAT pointed and survey observations in a region of 40 deg 2 around the NEP, restricting the ROSAT field of view to the inner 30′ radius. We obtain an X-ray catalogue of 805 sources with 0.5−2 keV fluxes > 2.9 × 10 −15 erg cm −2 s −1 , about a factor of three deeper than the ROSAT All-Sky Survey in this field. The sensitivity and angular resolution of our data are comparable to the eROSITA All-Sky Survey expectations. The 50% position error radius of the sample of X-ray sources is ∼10″. We use HEROES optical and near-infrared imaging photometry from the Subaru and Canada/France/Hawaii telescopes together with GALEX, SDSS, Pan-STARRS, and WISE catalogues, as well as images from a new deep and wide Spitzer survey in the field to statistically identify the X-ray sources and to calculate photometric redshifts for the candidate counterparts. In particular, we utilize mid-infrared (mid-IR) colours to identify active galactic nucleus (AGN) X-ray more » counterparts. Despite the relatively large error circles and often faint counterparts, together with confusion issues and systematic errors, we obtain a rather reliable catalogue of 766 high-quality optical counterparts, corresponding redshifts and optical classifications. The quality of the dataset is sufficient to look at ensemble properties of X-ray source classes. In particular we find a new population of luminous absorbed X-ray AGN at large redshifts, identified through their mid-IR colours. This populous group of AGN was not recognized in previous X-ray surveys, but could be identified in our work due to the unique combination of survey solid angle, X-ray sensitivity, and quality of the multi-wavelength photometry. We also use the WISE and Spitzer photometry to identify a sample of 185 AGN selected purely through their mid-IR colours, most of which are not detected by ROSAT. Their redshifts and upper limits to X-ray luminosity and X-ray–to–optical flux ratios are even higher than for the new class of X-ray selected luminous type 2 AGN (AGN2); they are probably a natural extension of this sample. This unique dataset is important as a reference sample for future deep surveys in the NEP region, in particular for eROSITA and also for Euclid and SPHEREX. We predict that most of the absorbed distant AGN should be readily picked up by eROSITA, but they require sensitive mid-IR imaging to be recognized as optical counterparts. « less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1716093
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10269425
Journal Name:
Astronomy & Astrophysics
Volume:
645
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
A95
ISSN:
0004-6361
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Context. In November 2019, eROSITA on board of the Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) observatory started to map the entire sky in X-rays. After the four-year survey program, it will reach a flux limit that is about 25 times deeper than ROSAT. During the SRG performance verification phase, eROSITA observed a contiguous 140 deg 2 area of the sky down to the final depth of the eROSITA all-sky survey (eROSITA Final Equatorial-Depth Survey; eFEDS), with the goal of obtaining a census of the X-ray emitting populations (stars, compact objects, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, and active galactic nuclei) that will be discovered over the entire sky. Aims. This paper presents the identification of the counterparts to the point sources detected in eFEDS in the main and hard samples and their multi-wavelength properties, including redshift. Methods. To identifyy the counterparts, we combined the results from two independent methods ( NWAY and ASTROMATCH ), trained on the multi-wavelength properties of a sample of 23k XMM-Newton sources detected in the DESI Legacy Imaging Survey DR8. Then spectroscopic redshifts and photometry from ancillary surveys were collated to compute photometric redshifts. Results. Of the eFEDS sources, 24 774 of 27 369 have reliable counterparts (90.5%) in the main samplemore »and 231 of 246 sourcess (93.9%) have counterparts in the hard sample, including 2514 (3) sources for which a second counterpart is equally likely. By means of reliable spectra, Gaia parallaxes, and/or multi-wavelength properties, we have classified the reliable counterparts in both samples into Galactic (2695) and extragalactic sources (22 079). For about 340 of the extragalactic sources, we cannot rule out the possibility that they are unresolved clusters or belong to clusters. Inspection of the distributions of the X-ray sources in various optical/IR colour-magnitude spaces reveal a rich variety of diverse classes of objects. The photometric redshifts are most reliable within the KiDS/VIKING area, where deep near-infrared data are also available. Conclusions. This paper accompanies the eROSITA early data release of all the observations performed during the performance and verification phase. Together with the catalogues of primary and secondary counterparts to the main and hard samples of the eFEDS survey, this paper releases their multi-wavelength properties and redshifts.« less
  2. ABSTRACT With the launch of eROSITA (extended Roentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array), successfully occurred on 2019 July 13, we are facing the challenge of computing reliable photometric redshifts for 3 million of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the entire sky, having available only patchy and inhomogeneous ancillary data. While we have a good understanding of the photo-z quality obtainable for AGN using spectral energy distribution (SED)-fitting technique, we tested the capability of machine learning (ML), usually reliable in computing photo-z for QSO in wide and shallow areas with rich spectroscopic samples. Using MLPQNA as example of ML, we computed photo-z for the X-ray-selected sources in Stripe 82X, using the publicly available photometric and spectroscopic catalogues. Stripe 82X is at least as deep as eROSITA will be and wide enough to include also rare and bright AGNs. In addition, the availability of ancillary data mimics what can be available in the whole sky. We found that when optical, and near- and mid-infrared data are available, ML and SED fitting perform comparably well in terms of overall accuracy, realistic redshift probability density functions, and fraction of outliers, although they are not the same for the two methods. The results couldmore »further improve if the photometry available is accurate and including morphological information. Assuming that we can gather sufficient spectroscopy to build a representative training sample, with the current photometry coverage we can obtain reliable photo-z for a large fraction of sources in the Southern hemisphere well before the spectroscopic follow-up, thus timely enabling the eROSITA science return. The photo-z catalogue is released here.« less
  3. Abstract We present optical follow-up observations for candidate clusters in the Clusters Hiding in Plain Sight survey, which is designed to find new galaxy clusters with extreme central galaxies that were misidentified as bright isolated sources in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey catalog. We identify 11 cluster candidates around X-ray, radio, and mid-IR-bright sources, including six well-known clusters, two false associations of foreground and background clusters, and three new candidates, which are observed further with Chandra. Of the three new candidates, we confirm two newly discovered galaxy clusters: CHIPS 1356-3421 and CHIPS 1911+4455. Both clusters are luminous enough to be detected in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey data if not because of their bright central cores. CHIPS 1911+4455 is similar in many ways to the Phoenix cluster, but with a highly disturbed X-ray morphology on large scales. We find the occurrence rate for clusters that would appear to be X-ray-bright point sources in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (and any surveys with similar angular resolution) to be 2% ± 1%, and the occurrence rate of clusters with runaway cooling in their cores to be <1%, consistent with predictions of chaotic cold accretion. With the number of new groups and clusters predicted to bemore »found with eROSITA, the population of clusters that appear to be point sources (due to a central QSO or a dense cool core) could be around 2000. Finally, this survey demonstrates that the Phoenix cluster is likely the strongest cool core at z < 0.7—anything more extreme would have been found in this survey.« less
  4. Aims. We present the detailed characterisation of a sample of 56 sources serendipitously detected in ALMA band 7 as part of the ALMA Large Program to INvestigate CII at Early Times (ALPINE). These sources, detected in COSMOS and ECDFS, have been used to derive the total infrared luminosity function (LF) and to estimate the cosmic star formation rate density (SFRD) up to z  ≃ 6. Methods. We looked for counterparts of the ALMA sources in all the available multi-wavelength (from HST to VLA) and photometric redshift catalogues. We also made use of deeper UltraVISTA and Spitzer source lists and maps to identify optically dark sources with no matches in the public catalogues. We used the sources with estimated redshifts to derive the 250 μ m rest-frame and total infrared (8–1000 μ m) LFs from z  ≃ 0.5 to 6. Results. Our ALMA blind survey (860 μ m flux density range: ∼0.3–12.5 mJy) allows us to further push the study of the nature and evolution of dusty galaxies at high- z , identifying luminous and massive sources to redshifts and faint luminosities never probed before by any far-infrared surveys. The ALPINE data are the first ones to sample the faint end of themore »infrared LF, showing little evolution from z  ≃ 2.5 to z ≃ 6, and a “flat” slope up to the highest redshifts (i.e. 4.5 <   z  <  6). The SFRD obtained by integrating the luminosity function remains almost constant between z  ≃ 2 and z  ≃ 6, and significantly higher than the optical or ultra-violet derivations, showing a significant contribution of dusty galaxies and obscured star formation at high- z . About 14% of all the ALPINE serendipitous continuum sources are found to be optically and near-infrared (near-IR) dark (to a depth K s  ∼ 24.9 mag). Six show a counterpart only in the mid-IR and no HST or near-IR identification, while two are detected as [C II] emitters at z  ≃ 5. The six HST+near-IR dark galaxies with mid-IR counterparts are found to contribute about 17% of the total SFRD at z  ≃ 5 and to dominate the high-mass end of the stellar mass function at z  >  3.« less
  5. ABSTRACT We present two catalogues of active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates selected from the latest data of two all-sky surveys – Data Release 2 of the Gaia mission and the unWISE catalogue of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We train a random forest classifier to predict the probability of each source in the Gaia–unWISE joint sample being an AGN, PRF, based on Gaia astrometric and photometric measurements and unWISE photometry. The two catalogues, which we designate C75 and R85, are constructed by applying different PRF threshold cuts to achieve an overall completeness of 75 per cent (≈90 per cent at GaiaG ≤ 20 mag) and reliability of 85 per cent, respectively. The C75 (R85) catalogue contains 2734 464 (2182 193) AGN candidates across the effective 36 000 deg2 sky, of which ≈0.91 (0.52) million are new discoveries. Photometric redshifts of the AGN candidates are derived by a random forest regressor using Gaia and WISE magnitudes and colours. The estimated overall photometric redshift accuracy is 0.11. Cross-matching the AGN candidates with a sample of known bright cluster galaxies, we identify a high-probability strongly lensed AGN candidate system, SDSS J1326+4806, with a large image separation of 21${^{\prime\prime}_{.}}$06. All the AGN candidates in our catalogues will have ∼5-yr long light curves from Gaiamore »by the end of the mission, and thus will be a great resource for AGN variability studies. Our AGN catalogues will also be helpful in AGN target selections for future spectroscopic surveys, especially those in the Southern hemisphere. The C75 catalogue can be downloaded at https://www.ast.cam.ac.uk/~ypshu/AGN_Catalogues.html.« less