Family ethnic socialization (FES) is a critical component of youth ethnic-racial identity (ERI) development. However, little research has focused on FES experiences amongst White families. The current study applied a convergent mixed methods design to investigate how immigration generational status (i.e., number of U.S.-born parents and grandparents) was associated with FES within White American families and the extent to which that informed adolescents’ ERI development. Utilizing survey data for White adolescents’ ( N = 532) self-reported FES experiences and ERI exploration and resolution, quantitative path analyses testing for mediation indicated that, as adolescents reported more family members born in the U.S., their FES experiences were lower and, in turn, their ERI exploration and resolution were also lower. FES fully mediated the relation between generational status and their ERI exploration and resolution. A theoretical thematic analysis of focus group data from a subsample of participants offered insights into how White adolescents described their FES experiences, illustrating the integral role of parents and grandparents for learning about their ethnic heritage, school’s role in facilitating FES, and various methods of maintaining familial collective cultural memory. The current study offers preliminary insights into FES among White families and identifies new questions for exploration future research.
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Child development
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
The Role of Family Ethnic Socialization and Generational Status in White Adolescents’ Ethnic-Racial Identity Development
Ethnic-racial discrimination experiences and ethnic-racial identity predict adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment: Evidence for a compensatory risk-resilience modelTheory and empirical evidence indicate that ethnic-racial discrimination serves as a risk factor for adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment, whereas ethnic-racial identity (ERI) development promotes positive youth adjustment and can mitigate the negative outcomes of discrimination-related risk. In Colombia, the legacies of an ethnic-racial hierarchy, mestizaje ideology (i.e., the assumption that everyone is racially mixed), and contemporary multiculturalism education reforms create a unique context for understanding adolescents’ experiences of ethnic-racial discrimination, ERI development, and their implications for psychosocial adjustment. In this study of Colombian adolescents (N = 462; Mage = 15.90 years; 47.3% female), almost 40% of participants reported experiencing ethnic-racial-based discrimination. Experiencing more frequent ethnic-racial discrimination was associated with lower self-esteem and higher depressive symptoms, whereas higher ERI resolution (i.e., gaining sense of clarity about ethnic-racial group membership) and affirmation (i.e., feeling positively about ethnic-racial group membership) were associated with higher self-esteem and lower depressive symptoms. ERI exploration (i.e., learning history and gaining knowledge about ethnic-racial group membership) was also associated with higher self-esteem and moderated the association between discrimination and depressive symptoms, such that this association was stronger at higher compared to lower levels of ERI exploration. Findings provide novel evidence for ethnic-racial-related risk and resilience processes among Colombian youth.
To Be in Harmony: Chinese American Adolescents’ and Parents’ Bicultural Integration During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Experiences of racial discrimination have been found to be associated with internalizing problems among ethnic–racial minority youth. However, mediating and moderating processes that might explain this association is less well understood. Thus, the present study aimed to examine whether Chinese American adolescents’ bicultural identity integration harmony (BII-Harmony) mediated the association between their experiences of racial discrimination and internalizing behaviors. Furthermore, we examined the moderating role of their parents’ BII-Harmony in this mediation model. Chinese American adolescents ( Mage= 13.9 years; SD = 2.3; 48% female) reported their experiences of racial discrimination and BII-Harmony, and their parents ( Mage= 46.2 years; SD = 5.2; 81% mothers) reported their BII-Harmony and their children’s internalizing difficulties. Chinese American adolescents’ racial discrimination experiences were negatively associated with BII-Harmony, and in turn, more internalizing problems, but only when their parents also reported low and mean levels of BII-Harmony.
Promoting adolescent adjustment by intervening in ethnic-racial identity development: Opportunities for developmental prevention science and considerations for a global theory of change
Identity formation is a fundamental developmental process that has significant consequences for youth adjustment during adolescence and beyond. This article presents evidence indicating that ethnic-racial identity, specifically, is an important developmental competency on which prevention science should focus in the interest of promoting positive youth development. Findings from the initial efficacy testing of the Identity Project, an ethnic-racial identity prevention program grounded in developmental theory, are presented and discussed. Moreover, preliminary evidence of the intervention’s potential when implemented by teachers is introduced, drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data from a recent study. Taking a broader perspective, future directions for research are presented with a specific focus on considering how experiences of ethnoracial marginalization and racialized othering in countries across the globe may make this work relevant to contexts outside the United States. Finally, the possibility of a global theory of change is introduced, and the potential benefits of implementing programs such as the Identity Project in other countries are discussed.
Incorporating both heritage (e.g., Latino) and national (e.g., American) cultural systems into our sense of self (i.e., bicultural identity) and developing the ability to successfully respond to demands associated with each of these systems (i.e., bicultural competence) have been theorized to be central to the development and positive adjustment of U.S. Latinos, a group that represents a large segment of the country’s population. In this comprehensive review, we examined empirical research on biculturalism among U.S. Latinos spanning four decades (1980-2020), with a focus on synthesizing the field’s understanding of antecedents and consequents associated with biculturalism and identifying directions for future research. Our review of 152 empirical articles revealed that this literature was characterized by multiple approaches to the conceptualization (i.e., dual-cultural adaptation, dual-cultural identities, bicultural identity integration, and bicultural competence) and subsequent operationalization of biculturalism. Although each conceptualization has different implications for the conclusions that can be drawn regarding an aspect or facet of biculturalism and potential influence on adjustment, a significant majority (78%) of studies, across conceptualizations, provided evidence supporting a positive association between biculturalism and Latinos’ adjustment. In addition, a relatively small body of qualitative work was identified, and findings largely informed potential antecedents of biculturalism. We reviewmore »