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Title: Boundary Conditions and Polymeric Drag Reduction for the Navier–Stokes Equations
Reducing wall drag in turbulent pipe and channel flows is an issue of great practical importance. In engineering applications, end-functionalized polymer chains are often employed as agents to reduce drag. These are polymers which are floating in the solvent and attach (either by adsorption or through irreversible chemical binding) at one of their chain ends to the substrate (wall). We propose a PDE model to study this setup in the simple setting where the solvent is a viscous incompressible Navier–Stokes fluid occupying the bulk of a smooth domain Ω⊂ℝ𝑑, and the wall-grafted polymer is in the so-called mushroom regime (inter-polymer spacing on the order of the typical polymer length). The microscopic description of the polymer enters into the macroscopic description of the fluid motion through a dynamical boundary condition on the wall-tangential stress of the fluid, something akin to (but distinct from) a history-dependent slip-length. We establish the global well-posedness of strong solutions in two-spatial dimensions and prove that the inviscid limit to the strong Euler solution holds with a rate. Moreover, the wall-friction factor ⟨𝑓⟩ and the global energy dissipation ⟨𝜀⟩ vanish inversely proportional to the Reynolds number 𝐑𝐞. This scaling corresponds to Poiseuille’s law for the friction factor ⟨𝑓⟩∼1/𝐑𝐞 for laminar flow and thereby quantifies drag reduction in our setting. These results are in stark contrast to those available for physical boundaries without polymer additives modeled by, for example, no-slip conditions, where no such results are generally known even in two-dimensions.  more » « less
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Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis
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National Science Foundation
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