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  1. Reducing wall drag in turbulent pipe and channel flows is an issue of great practical importance. In engineering applications, end-functionalized polymer chains are often employed as agents to reduce drag. These are polymers which are floating in the solvent and attach (either by adsorption or through irreversible chemical binding) at one of their chain ends to the substrate (wall). We propose a PDE model to study this setup in the simple setting where the solvent is a viscous incompressible Navier–Stokes fluid occupying the bulk of a smooth domain Ω⊂ℝ𝑑, and the wall-grafted polymer is in the so-called mushroom regime (inter-polymer spacing on the order of the typical polymer length). The microscopic description of the polymer enters into the macroscopic description of the fluid motion through a dynamical boundary condition on the wall-tangential stress of the fluid, something akin to (but distinct from) a history-dependent slip-length. We establish the global well-posedness of strong solutions in two-spatial dimensions and prove that the inviscid limit to the strong Euler solution holds with a rate. Moreover, the wall-friction factor ⟨𝑓⟩ and the global energy dissipation ⟨𝜀⟩ vanish inversely proportional to the Reynolds number 𝐑𝐞. This scaling corresponds to Poiseuille’s law for the friction factor ⟨𝑓⟩∼1/𝐑𝐞 for laminar flow and thereby quantifies drag reduction in our setting. These results are in stark contrast to those available for physical boundaries without polymer additives modeled by, for example, no-slip conditions, where no such results are generally known even in two-dimensions. 
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    We construct smooth, non-symmetric plasma equilibria which possess closed, nested flux surfaces and solve the magnetohydrostatic (steady three-dimensional incompressible Euler) equations with a small force. The solutions are also ‘nearly’ quasisymmetric. The primary idea is, given a desired quasisymmetry direction $\xi$ , to change the smooth structure on space so that the vector field $\xi$ is Killing for the new metric and construct $\xi$ –symmetric solutions of the magnetohydrostatic equations on that background by solving a generalized Grad–Shafranov equation. If $\xi$ is close to a symmetry of Euclidean space, then these are solutions on flat space up to a small forcing. 
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    Abstract Smooth solutions of the incompressible Euler equations are characterized by the property that circulation around material loops is conserved. This is the Kelvin theorem. Likewise, smooth solutions of Navier–Stokes are characterized by a generalized Kelvin's theorem, introduced by Constantin–Iyer (2008). In this note, we introduce a class of stochastic fluid equations, whose smooth solutions are characterized by natural extensions of the Kelvin theorems of their deterministic counterparts, which hold along certain noisy flows. These equations are called the stochastic Euler–Poincaré and stochastic Navier–Stokes–Poincaré equations respectively. The stochastic Euler–Poincaré equations were previously derived from a stochastic variational principle by Holm (2015), which we briefly review. Solutions of these equations do not obey pathwise energy conservation/dissipation in general. In contrast, we also discuss a class of stochastic fluid models, solutions of which possess energy theorems but do not, in general, preserve circulation theorems. 
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