- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- 18294 to 18303
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Laser-induced reduction of metal ions is attracting increasing attention as a sustainable route to ligand-free metal nanoparticles. In this work, we investigate the photochemical reactions involved in reduction of Ag + and [AuCl 4 ] − upon interaction with lasers with nanosecond and femtosecond pulse duration, using strong-field ionization mass spectrometry and spectroscopic assays to identify stable molecular byproducts. Whereas Ag + in aqueous isopropyl alcohol (IPA) is reduced through plasma-mediated mechanisms upon femtosecond laser excitation, low-fluence nanosecond laser excitation induces electron transfer from IPA to Ag + . Both nanosecond and femtosecond laser excitation of aqueous [AuCl 4 ] − produce reactive chlorine species by Au–Cl bond homolysis. Formation of numerous volatile products by IPA decomposition during both femtosecond and nanosecond laser excitation of [AuCl 4 ] − is attributed to enhanced optical breakdown by the Au nanoparticle products of [AuCl 4 ] − reduction. These mechanistic insights can inform the design of laser synthesis procedures to improve control over metal nanoparticle properties and enhance byproduct yields.more » « less
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Mamyshev oscillators produce high-performance pulses, but technical and practical issues render them unsuitable for widespread use. Here we present a Mamyshev oscillator with several key design features that enable self-starting operation and unprecedented performance and simplicity from an all-fiber laser. The laser generates 110 nJ pulses that compress to 40 fs and 80 nJ with a grating pair. The pulse energy and duration are both the best achieved by a femtosecond all-fiber laser to date, to our knowledge, and the resulting peak power of 1.5 MW is 20 times higher than that of prior all-fiber, self-starting lasers. The simplicity of the design, ease of use, and pulse performance make this laser an attractive tool for practical applications.
Galvanic replacement (GR) of monometallic nanoparticles (NPs) provides a versatile route to interesting bimetallic nanostructures, with examples such as nanoboxes, nanocages, nanoshells, nanorings, and heterodimers reported. The replacement of bimetallic templates by a more noble metal can generate trimetallic nanostructures with different architectures, where the specific structure has been shown to depend on the relative reduction potentials of the participating metals and lattice mismatch between the depositing and template metal phases. Now, the role of reaction stoichiometry is shown to direct the overall architecture of multimetallic nanostructures produced by GR with bimetallic templates. Specifically, the number of initial metal islands deposited on a NP template depends on the reaction stoichiometry. This outcome was established by studying the GR process between intermetallic PdCu (i-PdCu) NPs and either AuCl 2 − (Au 1+ ) or AuCl 4 − (Au 3+ ), producing i-PdCu–Au heterostructures. Significantly, multiple Au domains form in the case of GR with AuCl 2 − while only single Au domains form in the case of AuCl 4 − . These different NP architectures and their connection to reaction stoichiometry are consistent with Stranski–Krastanov (SK) growth, providing general guidelines on how the conditions of GR processes can be used to achieve multimetallic nanostructures with different defined architectures.more » « less
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