 Award ID(s):
 1816577
 NSFPAR ID:
 10277026
 Date Published:
 Journal Name:
 Eleventh International Workshop on Accelerating Analytics and Data Management Systems Using Modern Processor and Storage Architectures (AMDS'20)
 Format(s):
 Medium: X
 Sponsoring Org:
 National Science Foundation
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We revisit the problem of building static hash tables on the GPU and present an efficient implementation of bucketed hash tables. By decoupling the probing scheme from the hash table inmemory representation, we offer an implementation where the number of probes and the bucket size are the only factors limiting performance. Our analysis sweeps through the hash table parameter space for two probing schemes: cuckoo and iceberg hashing. We show that a bucketed cuckoo hash table (BCHT) that uses three hash functions outperforms alternative methods that use iceberg hashing and a cuckoo hash table that uses a bucket size of one. At load factors as high as 0.99, BCHT enjoys an average probe count of 1.43 during insertion. Using three hash functions only, positive and negative queries require at most 1.39 and 2.8 average probes per key, respectively.more » « less

Hashing is a fundamental operation in database management, playing a key role in the implementation of numerous core database data structures and algorithms. Traditional hash functions aim to mimic a function that maps a key to a random value, which can result in collisions, where multiple keys are mapped to the same value. There are many wellknown schemes like chaining, probing, and cuckoo hashing to handle collisions. In this work, we aim to study if using learned models instead of traditional hash functions can reduce collisions and whether such a reduction translates to improved performance, particularly for indexing and joins. We show that learned models reduce collisions in some cases, which depend on how the data is distributed. To evaluate the effectiveness of learned models as hash function, we test them with bucket chaining, linear probing, and cuckoo hash tables. We find that learned models can (1) yield a 1.4x lower probe latency, and (2) reduce the nonpartitioned hash join runtime with 28% over the next best baseline for certain datasets. On the other hand, if the data distribution is not suitable, we either do not see gains or see worse performance. In summary, we find that learned models can indeed outperform hash functions, but only for certain data distributions.more » « less

Today’s filters, such as quotient, cuckoo, and Morton, have a tradeoff between space and speed; even when moderately full (e.g., 50%75% full), their performance degrades nontrivially. The result is that today’s systems designers are forced to choose between speed and space usage. In this paper, we present the vector quotient filter (VQF). Locally, the VQF is based on Robin Hood hashing, like the quotient filter, but uses poweroftwochoices hashing to reduce the variance of runs, and thus others consistent, high throughput across load factors. Poweroftwochoices hashing also makes it more amenable to concurrent updates, compared to the cuckoo filter and variants. Finally, the vector quotient filter is designed to exploit SIMD instructions so that all operations have $ (1) cost, independent of the size of the filter or its load factor. We show that the vector quotient flter is 2x faster for inserts compared to the Morton filter (a cuckoo filter variant and stateof theart for inserts) and has similar lookup and deletion performance as the cuckoo filter (which is fastest for queries and deletes), despite having a simpler design and implementation. The vector quotient filter has minimal performance decline at high load factors, a problem that has plagued modern filters, including quotient, cuckoo, and Morton. Furthermore, we give a threadsafe version of the vector quotient filter and show that insertion throughput scales 3x with four threads compared to a single thread.more » « less

Feature hashing is widely used to process large scale sparse features for learning of predictive models. Collisions inherently happen in the hashing process and hurt the model performance. In this paper, we develop a feature hashing scheme called Cuckoo Feature Hashing(CCFH) based on the principle behind Cuckoo hashing, a hashing scheme designed to resolve collisions. By providing multiple possible hash locations for each feature, CCFH prevents the collisions between predictive features by dynamically hashing them into alternative locations during model training. Experimental results on prediction tasks with hundredmillions of features demonstrate that CCFH can achieve the same level of performance by using only 15%25% parameters compared with conventional feature hashing.

First introduced in 1954, the linearprobing hash table is among the oldest data structures in computer science, and thanks to its unrivaled data locality, linear probing continues to be one of the fastest hash tables in practice. It is widely believed and taught, however, that linear probing should never be used at high load factors; this is because of an effect known as primary clustering which causes insertions at a load factor of 1  1/x to take expected time O(x2) (rather than the intuitive running time of ⇥(x)). The dangers of primary clustering, first discovered by Knuth in 1963, have now been taught to generations of computer scientists, and have influenced the design of some of the most widely used hash tables in production. We show that primary clustering is not the foregone conclusion that it is reputed to be. We demonstrate that seemingly small design decisions in how deletions are implemented have dramatic effects on the asymptotic performance of insertions: if these design decisions are made correctly, then even if a hash table operates continuously at a load factor of 1  (1/x), the expected amortized cost per insertion/deletion is O(x). This is because the tombstones left behind by deletions can actually cause an anticlustering effect that combats primary clustering. Interestingly, these design decisions, despite their remarkable effects, have historically been viewed as simply implementationlevel engineering choices. We also present a new variant of linear probing (which we call graveyard hashing) that completely eliminates primary clustering on any sequence of operations: if, when an operation is performed, the current load factor is 1 1/x for some x, then the expected cost of the operation is O(x). Thus we can achieve the data locality of traditional linear probing without any of the disadvantages of primary clustering. One corollary is that, in the externalmemory model with a data blocks of size B, graveyard hashing offers the following remarkably strong guarantee: at any load factor 1 1/x satisfying x = o(B), graveyard hashing achieves 1 + o(1) expected block transfers per operation. In contrast, past externalmemory hash tables have only been able to offer a 1 + o(1) guarantee when the block size B is at least O(x2). Our results come with actionable lessons for both theoreticians and practitioners, in particular, that well designed use of tombstones can completely change the asymptotic landscape of how the linear probing behaves (and even in workloads without deletions).more » « less