skip to main content

Title: FESTA: Flow Estimation via Spatial-Temporal Attention for Scene Point Clouds
Scene flow depicts the dynamics of a 3D scene, which is critical for various applications such as autonomous driving, robot navigation, AR/VR, etc. Conventionally, scene ?ow is estimated from dense/regular RGB video frames. With the development of depth-sensing technologies, precise 3D measurements are available via point clouds which have sparked new research in 3D scene flow. Nevertheless, it remains challenging to extract scene flow from point clouds due to the sparsity and irregularity in typical point cloud sampling patterns. One major issue related to irregular sampling is identified as the randomness during point set abstraction/feature extraction an elementary process in many flow estimation scenarios. A novel Spatial Abstraction with Attention (SA2) layer is accordingly proposed to alleviate the unstable abstraction problem. Moreover, a Temporal Abstraction with Attention (TA2) layer is proposed to rectify attention in temporal domain, leading to benefits with motions scaled in a larger range. Extensive analysis and experiments verified the motivation and significant performance gains of our method, dubbed as Flow Estimation via Spatial-Temporal Attention (FESTA), when compared to several state-of-the-art benchmarks of scene flow estimation.
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2021.
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Recently 3D scene understanding attracts attention for many applications, however, annotating a vast amount of 3D data for training is usually expensive and time consuming. To alleviate the needs of ground truth, we propose a self-supervised schema to learn 4D spatio-temporal features (i.e. 3 spatial dimensions plus 1 temporal dimension) from dynamic point cloud data by predicting the temporal order of sampled and shuffled point cloud clips. 3D sequential point cloud contains precious geometric and depth information to better recognize activities in 3D space compared to videos. To learn the 4D spatio-temporal features, we introduce 4D convolution neural networks to predict the temporal order on a self-created large scale dataset, NTU- PCLs, derived from the NTU-RGB+D dataset. The efficacy of the learned 4D spatio-temporal features is verified on two tasks: 1) Self-supervised 3D nearest neighbor retrieval; and 2) Self-supervised representation learning transferred for action recognition on smaller 3D dataset. Our extensive experiments prove the effectiveness of the proposed self-supervised learning method which achieves comparable results w.r.t. the fully-supervised methods on action recognition on MSRAction3D dataset.
  2. We present a novel deep neural network architecture for end-to-end scene flow estimation that directly operates on large-scale 3D point clouds. Inspired by Bilateral Convolutional Layers (BCL), we propose novel DownBCL, UpBCL, and CorrBCL operations that restore structural information from unstructured point clouds, and fuse information from two consecutive point clouds. Operating on discrete and sparse permutohedral lattice points, our architectural design is parsimonious in computational cost. Our model can efficiently process a pair of point cloud frames at once with a maximum of 86K points per frame. Our approach achieves state-of-the-art performance on the FlyingThings3D and KITTI Scene Flow 2015 datasets. Moreover, trained on synthetic data, our approach shows great generalization ability on real-world data and on different point densities without fine-tuning.
  3. Current deep neural network approaches for camera pose estimation rely on scene structure for 3D motion estimation, but this decreases the robustness and thereby makes cross-dataset generalization difficult. In contrast, classical approaches to structure from motion estimate 3D motion utilizing optical flow and then compute depth. Their accuracy, however, depends strongly on the quality of the optical flow. To avoid this issue, direct methods have been proposed, which separate 3D motion from depth estimation, but compute 3D motion using only image gradients in the form of normal flow. In this paper, we introduce a network NFlowNet, for normal flow estimation which is used to enforce robust and direct constraints. In particular, normal flow is used to estimate relative camera pose based on the cheirality (depth positivity) constraint. We achieve this by formulating the optimization problem as a differentiable cheirality layer, which allows for end-to-end learning of camera pose. We perform extensive qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the proposed DiffPoseNet’s sensitivity to noise and its generalization across datasets. We compare our approach to existing state-of-the-art methods on KITTI, TartanAir, and TUM-RGBD datasets.
  4. We present MultiBodySync, a novel, end-to-end trainable multi-body motion segmentation and rigid registration framework for multiple input 3D point clouds. The two non-trivial challenges posed by this multi-scan multibody setting that we investigate are: (i) guaranteeing correspondence and segmentation consistency across multiple input point clouds capturing different spatial arrangements of bodies or body parts; and (ii) obtaining robust motion-based rigid body segmentation applicable to novel object categories. We propose an approach to address these issues that incorporates spectral synchronization into an iterative deep declarative network, so as to simultaneously recover consistent correspondences as well as motion segmentation. At the same time, by explicitly disentangling the correspondence and motion segmentation estimation modules, we achieve strong generalizability across different object categories. Our extensive evaluations demonstrate that our method is effective on various datasets ranging from rigid parts in articulated objects to individually moving objects in a 3D scene, be it single-view or full point clouds.
  5. Unlike images which are represented in regular dense grids, 3D point clouds are irregular and unordered, hence applying convolution on them can be difficult. In this paper, we extend the dynamic filter to a new convolution operation, named PointConv. PointConv can be applied on point clouds to build deep convolutional networks. We treat convolution kernels as nonlinear functions of the local coordinates of 3D points comprised of weight and density functions. With respect to a given point, the weight functions are learned with multi-layer perceptron networks and the density functions through kernel density estimation. A novel reformulation is proposed for efficiently computing the weight functions, which allowed us to dramatically scale up the network and significantly improve its performance. The learned convolution kernel can be used to compute translation-invariant and permutation-invariant convolution on any point set in the 3D space. Besides, PointConv can also be used as deconvolution operators to propagate features from a subsampled point cloud back to its original resolution. Experiments on ModelNet40, ShapeNet, and ScanNet show that deep convolutional neural networks built on PointConv are able to achieve state-of-the-art on challenging semantic segmentation benchmarks on 3D point clouds. Besides, our experiments converting CIFAR-10 into a point cloudmore »showed that networks built on PointConv can match the performance of convolutional networks in 2D images of a similar structure.« less