Real-time Discovery of AT2020xnd: A Fast, Luminous Ultraviolet Transient with Minimal Radioactive Ejecta
The many unusual properties of the enigmatic AT2018cow suggested that at least some subset of the empirical class of fast blue optical transients (FBOTs) represents a genuinely new astrophysical phenomenon. Unfortunately, the intrinsic rarity and fleeting nature of these events have made it difficult to identify additional examples early enough to acquire the observations necessary to constrain theoretical models. We present here the Zwicky Transient Facility discovery of AT2020xnd (ZTF20acigmel, the "Camel") at z=0.243, the first unambiguous AT2018cow analog to be found and confirmed in real time. AT2018cow and AT2020xnd share all key observational properties: a fast optical rise, sustained high photospheric temperature, absence of a second peak attributable to ejection of a radioactively-heated stellar envelope, extremely luminous radio, millimetre, and X-ray emission, and a dwarf-galaxy host. This supports the argument that AT2018cow-like events represent a distinct phenomenon from slower-evolving radio-quiet supernovae, likely requiring a different progenitor or a different central engine. The sample properties of the four known members of this class to date disfavour tidal disruption models but are consistent with the alternative model of an accretion powered jet following the direct collapse of a massive star to a black hole. Contextual filtering of alert streams combined with more »
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NSF-PAR ID:
10280375
Journal Name:
ArXivorg
ISSN:
2331-8422
3. ABSTRACT A few fast radio bursts’ (FRBs) light curves have exhibited large intrinsic modulations of their flux on extremely short ($t_{\rm r}\sim 10\, \mu$s) time-scales, compared to pulse durations (tFRB ∼ 1 ms). Light-curve variability time-scales, the small ratio of rise time of the flux to pulse duration, and the spectro-temporal correlations in the data constrain the compactness of the source and the mechanism responsible for the powerful radio emission. The constraints are strongest when radiation is produced far (≳1010 cm) from the compact object. We describe different physical set-ups that can account for the observed tr/tFRB ≪ 1 despite having large emissionmore »