skip to main content

Title: Online predictive connected nd automated eco-driving on signalized arterials considering traffic control devices and road geometry constraints under uncertain traffic conditions
For energy-efficient Connected and Automated Vehicle (CAV) Eco-driving control on signalized arterials under uncertain traffic conditions, this paper explicitly considers traffic control devices (e.g., road markings, traffic signs, and traffic signals) and road geometry (e.g., road shapes, road boundaries, and road grades) constraints in a data-driven optimization-based Model Predictive Control (MPC) modeling framework. This modeling framework uses real-time vehicle driving and traffic signal data via Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) and Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications. In the MPC-based control model, this paper mathematically formulates location-based traffic control devices and road geometry constraints using the geographic information from High-Definition (HD) maps. The location-based traffic control devices and road geometry constraints have the potential to improve the safety, energy, efficiency, driving comfort, and robustness of connected and automated driving on real roads by considering interrupted flow facility locations and road geometry in the formulation. We predict a set of uncertain driving states for the preceding vehicles through an online learning-based driving dynamics prediction model. We then solve a constrained finite-horizon optimal control problem with the predicted driving states to obtain a set of Eco-driving references for the controlled vehicle. To obtain the optimal acceleration or deceleration commands for the controlled vehicle with the set of Eco-driving more » references, we formulate a Distributionally Robust Stochastic Optimization (DRSO) model (i.e., a special case of data-driven optimization models under moment bounds) with Distributionally Robust Chance Constraints (DRCC) with location-based traffic control devices and road geometry constraints. We design experiments to demonstrate the proposed model under different traffic conditions using real-world connected vehicle trajectory data and Signal Phasing and Timing (SPaT) data on a coordinated arterial with six actuated intersections on Fuller Road in Ann Arbor, Michigan from the Safety Pilot Model Deployment (SPMD) project. « less
Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Transportation research
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Motivated by connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies, this paper proposes a data-driven optimization-based Model Predictive Control (MPC) modeling framework for the Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) of a string of CAVs under uncertain traffic conditions. The proposed data-driven optimization-based MPC modeling framework aims to improve the stability, robustness, and safety of longitudinal cooperative automated driving involving a string of CAVs under uncertain traffic conditions using Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) data. Based on an online learning-based driving dynamics prediction model, we predict the uncertain driving states of the vehicles preceding the controlled CAVs. With the predicted driving states of the preceding vehicles, we solve a constrained Finite-Horizon Optimal Control problem to predict the uncertain driving states of the controlled CAVs. To obtain the optimal acceleration or deceleration commands for the CAVs under uncertainties, we formulate a Distributionally Robust Stochastic Optimization (DRSO) model (i.e. a special case of data-driven optimization models under moment bounds) with a Distributionally Robust Chance Constraint (DRCC). The predicted uncertain driving states of the immediately preceding vehicles and the controlled CAVs will be utilized in the safety constraint and the reference driving states of the DRSO-DRCC model. To solve the minimax program of the DRSO-DRCC model, we reformulate themore »relaxed dual problem as a Semidefinite Program (SDP) of the original DRSO-DRCC model based on the strong duality theory and the Semidefinite Relaxation technique. In addition, we propose two methods for solving the relaxed SDP problem. We use Next Generation Simulation (NGSIM) data to demonstrate the proposed model in numerical experiments. The experimental results and analyses demonstrate that the proposed model can obtain string-stable, robust, and safe longitudinal cooperative automated driving control of CAVs by proper settings, including the driving-dynamics prediction model, prediction horizon lengths, and time headways. Computational analyses are conducted to validate the efficiency of the proposed methods for solving the DRSO-DRCC model for real-time automated driving applications within proper settings.« less
  2. Connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technology is providing urban transportation managers tremendous opportunities for better operation of urban mobility systems. However, there are significant challenges in real-time implementation as the computational time of the corresponding operations optimization model increases exponentially with increasing vehicle numbers. Following the companion paper (Chen et al. 2021), which proposes a novel automated traffic control scheme for isolated intersections, this study proposes a network-level, real-time traffic control framework for CAVs on grid networks. The proposed framework integrates a rhythmic control method with an online routing algorithm to realize collision-free control of all CAVs on a network and achieve superior performance in average vehicle delay, network traffic throughput, and computational scalability. Specifically, we construct a preset network rhythm that all CAVs can follow to move on the network and avoid collisions at all intersections. Based on the network rhythm, we then formulate online routing for the CAVs as a mixed integer linear program, which optimizes the entry times of CAVs at all entrances of the network and their time–space routings in real time. We provide a sufficient condition that the linear programming relaxation of the online routing model yields an optimal integer solution. Extensive numerical tests aremore »conducted to show the performance of the proposed operations management framework under various scenarios. It is illustrated that the framework is capable of achieving negligible delays and increased network throughput. Furthermore, the computational time results are also promising. The CPU time for solving a collision-free control optimization problem with 2,000 vehicles is only 0.3 second on an ordinary personal computer.« less
  3. Skateboarding as a method of transportation has become prevalent, which has increased the occurrence and likelihood of pedestrian–skateboarder collisions and near-collision scenarios in shared-use roadway areas. Collisions between pedestrians and skateboarders can result in significant injury. New approaches are needed to evaluate shared-use areas prone to hazardous pedestrian–skateboarder interactions, and perform real-time, in situ (e.g., on-device) predictions of pedestrian–skateboarder collisions as road conditions vary due to changes in land usage and construction. A mechanism called the Surrogate Safety Measures for skateboarder–pedestrian interaction can be computed to evaluate high-risk conditions on roads and sidewalks using deep learning object detection models. In this paper, we present the first ever skateboarder–pedestrian safety study leveraging deep learning architectures. We view and analyze state of the art deep learning architectures, namely the Faster R-CNN and two variants of the Single Shot Multi-box Detector (SSD) model to select the correct model that best suits two different tasks: automated calculation of Post Encroachment Time (PET) and finding hazardous conflict zones in real-time. We also contribute a new annotated data set that contains skateboarder–pedestrian interactions that has been collected for this study. Both our selected models can detect and classify pedestrians and skateboarders correctly and efficiently. However, duemore »to differences in their architectures and based on the advantages and disadvantages of each model, both models were individually used to perform two different set of tasks. Due to improved accuracy, the Faster R-CNN model was used to automate the calculation of post encroachment time, whereas to determine hazardous regions in real-time, due to its extremely fast inference rate, the Single Shot Multibox MobileNet V1 model was used. An outcome of this work is a model that can be deployed on low-cost, small-footprint mobile and IoT devices at traffic intersections with existing cameras to perform on-device inferencing for in situ Surrogate Safety Measurement (SSM), such as Time-To-Collision (TTC) and Post Encroachment Time (PET). SSM values that exceed a hazard threshold can be published to an Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) broker, where messages are received by an intersection traffic signal controller for real-time signal adjustment, thus contributing to state-of-the-art vehicle and pedestrian safety at hazard-prone intersections.« less
  4. Automated Lane Centering (ALC) systems are convenient and widely deployed today, but also highly security and safety critical. In this work, we are the first to systematically study the security of state-of-the-art deep learning based ALC systems in their designed operational domains under physical-world adversarial attacks. We formulate the problem with a safetycritical attack goal, and a novel and domain-specific attack vector: dirty road patches. To systematically generate the attack, we adopt an optimization-based approach and overcome domain-specific design challenges such as camera frame interdependencies due to attack-influenced vehicle control, and the lack of objective function design for lane detection models. We evaluate our attack on a production ALC using 80 scenarios from real-world driving traces. The results show that our attack is highly effective with over 97.5% success rates and less than 0.903 sec average success time, which is substantially lower than the average driver reaction time. This attack is also found (1) robust to various real-world factors such as lighting conditions and view angles, (2) general to different model designs, and (3) stealthy from the driver’s view. To understand the safety impacts, we conduct experiments using software-in-the-loop simulation and attack trace injection in a real vehicle. The resultsmore »show that our attack can cause a 100% collision rate in different scenarios, including when tested with common safety features such as automatic emergency braking. We also evaluate and discuss defenses.« less
  5. Real-time traffic data at intersections is significant for development of adaptive traffic light control systems. Sensors such as infrared radiation and GPS are not capable of providing detailed traffic information. Compared with these sensors, surveillance cameras have the potential to provide real scenes for traffic analysis. In this research, a You Only Look Once (YOLO)-based algorithm is employed to detect and track vehicles from traffic videos, and a predefined road mask is used to determine traffic flow and turning events in different roads. A Kalman filter is used to estimate and predict vehicle speed and location under the condition of background occlusion. The result shows that the proposed algorithm can identify traffic flow and turning events at a root mean square error (RMSE) of 10. The result shows that a Kalman filter with an intersection of union (IOU)-based tracker performs well at the condition of background occlusion. Also, the proposed algorithm can detect and track vehicles at different optical conditions. Bad weather and night-time will influence the detecting and tracking process in areas far from traffic cameras. The traffic flow extracted from traffic videos contains road information, so it can not only help with single intersection control, but also providesmore »information for a road network. The temporal characteristic of observed traffic flow gives the potential to predict traffic flow based on detected traffic flow, which will make the traffic light control more efficient.« less