A plasmonic flow reactor, consisting of thin Au film at exits of monolithic anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes under LED illumination is demonstrated. The system shows over 200% quantum efficiency (QE) for peroxide activation and the ability to limit to single oxidation reaction by controlling residence time with flow rate and pore geometry. Periodic pore arrays (20–200 nm diameter) with 25 nm thick Au on AAO are modeled by finite‐difference time‐domain (FDTD) simulations and predicted largest E‐field enhancements for the larger 200 nm pore diameters. Peroxide activation, as measured by O2generation is most efficient with a 200 nm pore diameter system under 523 nm LED illumination. The optimal wavelength falls near the absorption peak of Au@AAO with 200 nm pore diameter suggesting that hot electron generated from gold plasmonic response is the primary mechanism for activation of H2O2. QE for gold plasmonic flow system calculated from O2generation experiments is as high as 250%, which indicates a mechanism of hot‐electron activation of peroxide that leaves a still energetic hot‐electron to catalytically activate multiple reactions. The formation of Au surface oxides that are catalytically active in dark is also observed and must be accounted for in Au plasmonic photochemical studies.
- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation and North American Radio Science Meeting
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
The M2internal tide field contains waves of various baroclinic modes and various horizontal propagation directions. This paper presents a technique for decomposing the sea surface height (SSH) field of the multimodal multidirectional internal tide. The technique consists of two steps: first, different baroclinic modes are decomposed by two-dimensional (2D) spatial filtering, utilizing their different horizontal wavelengths; second, multidirectional waves in each mode are decomposed by 2D plane wave analysis. The decomposition technique is demonstrated using the M2internal tide field simulated by the MITgcm. This paper focuses on a region lying off the U.S. West Coast ranging 20°–50°N, 220°–245°E. The lowest three baroclinic modes are separately resolved from the internal tide field; each mode is further decomposed into five waves of arbitrary propagation directions in the horizontal. The decomposed fields yield unprecedented details on the internal tide’s generation and propagation, which cannot be observed in the harmonically fitted field. The results reveal that the mode-1 M2internal tide in the study region is dominantly from the Hawaiian Ridge to the west but also generated locally at the Mendocino Ridge and continental slope. The mode-2 and mode-3 M2internal tides are generated at isolated seamounts, as well as at the Mendocino Ridge and continental slope. The Mendocino Ridge radiates both southbound and northbound M2internal tides for all three modes. Their propagation distances decrease with increasing mode number: mode-1 waves can travel over 2000 km, while mode-3 waves can only be tracked for 300 km. The decomposition technique may be extended to other tidal constituents and to the global ocean.
Topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) are new materials with metallic surface states protected by crystal symmetry. The properties of molecular beam epitaxy grown SnTe TCI on SrTiO3(001) are investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), noncontact atomic force microscopy, low‐energy and reflection high‐energy electron diffraction, X‐ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, and density functional theory. Initially, SnTe (111) and (001) surfaces are observed; however, the (001) surface dominates with increasing film thickness. The films grow island‐by‐island with the  direction of SnTe (001) islands rotated up to 7.5° from SrTiO3. Microscopy reveals that this growth mechanism induces defects on different length scales and dimensions that affect the electronic properties, including point defects (0D); step edges (1D); grain boundaries between islands rotated up to several degrees; edge‐dislocation arrays (2D out‐of‐plane) that serve as periodic nucleation sites for pit growth (2D in‐plane); and screw dislocations (3D). These features cause variations in the surface electronic structure that appear in STM images as standing wave patterns and a nonuniform background superimposed on atomic features. The results indicate that both the growth process and the scanning probe tip can be used to induce symmetry breaking defects that may disrupt the topological states in a controlled way.
The in-plane orientation-dependent electrical and optical properties of two-dimensional (2D) anisotropic materials attract significant attention because of the intriguing underlying physics. However, this feature limits their further development in polarization-independent applications such as refractive index sensors and light absorbers. In this paper, polarization-independent optical properties of black phosphorous (BP) metadevices are achieved by the design of a single-layer pattern of 2D anisotropic material. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results indicate that the absorption spectrum remains unchanged as the polarization angle of the incident light varies from 0° to 360°. The performance of the BP metadevices when used as refractive index sensors is also studied. The results show that the polarization-independent BP sensors exhibit high sensitivity and figures of merit (FOMs). This work opens up the possibility of fabricating optically polarization-independent devices based on a single-layer pattern of 2D anisotropic material.
García-Blanco, Sonia M. ; Cheben, Pavel (Ed.)Periodic arrays of resonant dielectric nano- or microstructures provide perfect reflection across spectral bands whose extent is controllable by design. At resonance, the array yields this result even in a single subwavelength layer fashioned as a membrane or residing on a substrate. The resonance effect, known as guided-mode resonance, is basic to modulated films that are periodic in one dimension (1D) or in two dimensions (2D). It has been known for 40 years that these remarkable effects arise as incident light couples to leaky Bloch-type waveguide modes that propagate laterally while radiating energy. Perfect reflection by periodic lattices derives from the particle assembly and not from constituent particle resonance. We show that perfect reflection is independent of lattice particle shape in the sense that it arises for all particle shapes. The resonance wavelength of the Bloch-mode-mediated zero-order reflectance is primarily controlled by the period for a given lattice. This is because the period has direct, dominant impact on the homogenized effective-medium refractive index of the lattice that controls the effective mode index experienced by the mode generating the resonance. In recent years, the field of metamaterials has blossomed with a flood of attendant publications. A significant fraction of this output is focused on reflectors with claims that local Fabry-Perot or Mie resonance causes perfect reflection with the leaky Bloch-mode viewpoint ignored. In this paper, we advance key points showing the essentiality of lateral leaky Bloch modes while laying bare the shortcomings of the local mode explanations. The state of attendant technology with related applications is summarized. The take-home message is that it is the assembly of particles that delivers all the important effects including perfect reflection.more » « less