Safe operations of autonomous mobile robots in close proximity to humans, creates a need for enhanced trajectory tracking (with low tracking errors). Linear optimal control techniques such as Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and Model Predictive Control (MPC) have been used successfully for low-speed applications while leveraging their model-based methodology with manageable computational demands. However, model and parameter uncertainties or other unmodeled nonlinearities may cause poor control actions and constraint violations. Nonlinear MPC has emerged as an alternate optimal-control approach but needs to overcome real-time deployment challenges (including fast sampling time, design complexity, and limited computational resources). In recent years, the optimal control-based deployments have benefitted enormously from the ability of Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) to serve as universal function approximators. This has led to deployments in a plethora of previously inaccessible applications – but many aspects of generalizability, benchmarking, and systematic verification and validation coupled with benchmarking have emerged. This paper presents a novel approach to fusing Deep Reinforcement Learning-based (DRL) longitudinal control with a traditional PID lateral controller for autonomous navigation. Our approach follows (i) Generation of an adequate fidelity simulation scenario via a Real2Sim approach; (ii) training a DRL agent within this framework; (iii) Testing the performance andmore »
Deep reinforcement learning in medical imaging: A literature review
Deep reinforcement learning (DRL) augments the reinforcement learning framework, which learns a sequence of actions that maximizes the expected reward, with the representative power of deep neural networks. Recent works have demonstrated the great potential of DRL in medicine and healthcare. This paper presents a literature review of DRL in medical imaging. We start with a comprehensive tutorial of DRL, including the latest model-free and model-based algorithms. We then cover existing DRL applications for medical imaging, which are roughly divided into three main categories: (I) parametric medical image analysis tasks including landmark detection, object/lesion detection, registration, and view plane localization; (ii) solving optimization tasks including hyperparameter tuning, selecting augmentation strategies, and neural architecture search; and (iii) miscellaneous applications including surgical gesture segmentation, personalized mobile health intervention, and computational model personalization. The paper concludes with discussions of future perspectives.
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Medical image analysis
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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