skip to main content

Title: Highly Efficient Rectifier and DC-DC Converter Designed in 180 nm CMOS Process for Ultra-Low Frequency Energy Harvesting Applications
This paper presents the integration of an AC-DC rectifier and a DC-DC boost converter circuit designed in 180 nm CMOS process for ultra-low frequency (<; 10 Hz) energy harvesting applications. The proposed rectifier is a very low voltage CMOS rectifier circuit that rectifies the low-frequency signal of 100-250 mV amplitude and 1-10 Hz frequency into DC voltage. In this work, the energy is harvested from the REWOD (reverse electrowetting-on-dielectric) generator, which is a reverse electrowetting technique that converts mechanical vibrations to electrical energy. The objective is to develop a REWOD-based self-powered motion (such as walking, running, jogging, etc.) tracking sensors that can be worn, thus harvesting energy from regular activities. To this end, the proposed circuits are designed in such a way that the output from the REWOD is rectified and regulated using a DC-DC converter which is a 5-stage cross-coupled switching circuit. Simulation results show a voltage range of 1.1 V-2.1 V, i.e., 850-1200% voltage conversion efficiency (VCE) and 30% power conversion efficiency (PCE) for low input signal in the range 100-250 mV in the low-frequency range. This performance verifies the integration of the rectifier and DC-DC boost converter which makes it highly suitable for various motion-based energy harvesting more » applications. « less
Authors:
; ; ; ;
Award ID(s):
1933502
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10283280
Journal Name:
2020 IEEE 14th Dallas Circuits and Systems Conference (DCAS)
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
1 to 5
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. This paper presents a motion-sensing device with the capability of harvesting energy from low-frequency motion activities that can be utilized for long-term human health monitoring. The energy harvester used in the proposed motion sensor is based on the mechanical modulation of liquid on an insulated electrode, which utilizes a technique referred to as reverse electrowetting-on-dielectric (REWOD). The generated AC signal from the REWOD is rectified to a DC voltage using a Schottky diode-based rectifier and boosted subsequently with the help of a linear charge-pump circuit and a low-dropout regulator (LDO). The constant DC voltage from the LDO (1.8 V) powers the motion-sensing read-out circuitry, which converts the generated charge into a proportional output voltage using a charge amplifier. After amplification of the motion data, a 5-bit SAR-ADC (successive-approximation register ADC) digitizes the signal to be transmitted to a remote receiver. Both the CMOS energy harvester circuit including the rectifier, the charge-pump circuit, the LDO, and the read-out circuit including the charge amplifier, and the ADC is designed in the standard 180 nm CMOS technology. The amplified amplitude goes up to 1.76 V at 10 Hz motion frequency, following linearity with respect to the frequency. The generated DC voltage from themore »REWOD after the rectifier and the charge-pump is found to be 2.4 V, having the voltage conversion ratio (VCR) as 32.65% at 10 Hz of motion frequency. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the rectifier is simulated as high as 68.57% at 10 Hz. The LDO provides the power supply voltage of 1.8 V to the read-out circuit. The energy harvester demonstrates a linear relationship between the frequency of motion and the generated output power, making it suitable as a self-powered wearable motion sensor.« less
  2. This paper presents a reverse electrowetting-on-dielectric (REWOD) energy harvester integrated with rectifier, boost converter, and charge amplifier that is, without bias voltage, capable of powering wearable sensors for monitoring human health in real-time. REWOD has been demonstrated to effectively generate electrical current at a low frequency range (< 3 Hz), which is the frequency range for various human activities such as walking, running, etc. However, the current generated from the REWOD without external bias source is insufficient to power such motion sensors. In this work, to eventually implement a fully self-powered motion sensor, we demonstrate a novel bias-free REWOD AC generation and then rectify, boost, and amplify the signal using commercial components. The unconditioned REWOD output of 95–240 mV AC is generated using a 50 μL droplet of 0.5M NaCl electrolyte and 2.5 mm of electrode displacement from an oscillation frequency range of 1–3 Hz. A seven-stage rectifier using Schottky diodes having a forward voltage drop of 135–240 mV and a forward current of 1 mA converts the generated AC signal to DC voltage. ∼3 V DC is measured at the boost converter output, proving the system could function as a self-powered motion sensor. Additionally, a linear relationship of outputmore »DC voltage with respect to frequency and displacement demonstrates the potential of this REWOD energy harvester to function as a self-powered wearable motion sensor.

    « less
  3. This paper presents a reverse electrowetting-on-dielectric (REWOD) energy harvester integrated with rectifier, boost converter, and charge amplifier that is, without bias voltage, capable of powering wearable sensors for monitoring human health in real-time. REWOD has been demonstrated to effectively generate electrical current at a low frequency range (<3 Hz), which is the frequency range for various human activities such as walking, running, etc. However, the current generated from the REWOD without external bias source is insufficient to power such motion sensors. In this work, to eventually implement a fully self-powered motion sensor, we demonstrate a novel bias-free REWOD AC generation and then rectify, boost, and amplify the signal using commercial components. The unconditioned REWOD output of 95-240 mV AC is generated using a 50 μL droplet of 0.5M NaCl electrolyte and 2.5 mm of electrode displacement from an oscillation frequency range of 1-3 Hz. A seven-stage rectifier using Schottky diodes having a forward voltage drop of 135-240 mV and a forward current of 1 mA converts the generated AC signal to DC voltage. ~3 V DC is measured at the boost converter output, proving the system could function as a self-powered motion sensor. Additionally, a linear relationship of output DCmore »voltage with respect to frequency and displacement demonstrates the potential of this REWOD energy harvester to function as a self-powered wearable motion sensor.« less
  4. Abstract This paper presents a motion-sensing device with the capability of harvesting energy from low-frequency motion activities. Based on the high surface area reverse electrowetting-on-dielectric (REWOD) energy harvesting technique, mechanical modulation of the liquid generates an AC signal, which is modeled analytically and implemented in Matlab and COMSOL. A constant DC voltage is produced by using a rectifier and a DC–DC converter to power up the motion-sensing read-out circuit. A charge amplifier converts the generated charge into a proportional output voltage, which is transmitted wirelessly to a remote receiver. The harvested DC voltage after the rectifier and DC–DC converter is found to be 3.3 V, having a measured power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the rectifier as high as 40.26% at 5 Hz frequency. The energy harvester demonstrates a linear relationship between the frequency of motion and the generated output power, making it highly suitable as a self-powered wearable motion sensor.
  5. This paper presents a self-powered motion sensor based on reverse-electrowetting on dielectric (REWOD) energy harvesting having the capability of remotely keeping a track of any motion activity. The energy harvester includes a rectifier and a voltage regulator to provide the DC supply voltage to the analog front-end and the transmitter to wirelessly transfer the data from the motion sensor. The on-chip circuitry includes a seven-stage voltage-doubler based rectifier, an amplifier, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and a transmitter, and is designed in standard 180 nm CMOS process with a supply voltage of 1.8 V. The recycled folded cascode (RFC) based charge amplifier has a closed-loop gain of 53 dB within the bandwidth of 1-150 Hz, which is suitable to detect any low-frequency motion signal. An 8-bit SAR-ADC is designed to digitize the amplified signal with a sampling rate of 1 ksamples/s. The transmitter used for this application operates in the 3.1-5 GHz frequency band with an energy efficiency of 8.5 pJ/pulse at 100 kbps data rate. The wireless motion sensing device with the REWOD can be suitable for quantitatively monitoring the motion-related data as a wearable sensor.