Gas-phase metallicity gradients of TNG50 star-forming galaxies
ABSTRACT We present the radial gas-phase, mass-weighted metallicity profiles and gradients of the TNG50 star-forming galaxy population measured at redshifts z = 0–3. We investigate the redshift evolution of gradients and examine relations between gradient (negative) steepness and galaxy properties. We find that TNG50 gradients are predominantly negative at all redshifts, although we observe significant diversity among these negative gradients. We determine that the gradients of all galaxies grow more negative with redshift at a roughly constant rate of approximately $-0.02\ \mathrm{dex\, kpc^{-1}}/\Delta z$. This rate does not vary significantly with galaxy mass. We observe a weak negative correlation between gradient (negative) steepness and galaxy stellar mass at z < 2. However, when we normalize gradients by a characteristic radius defined by the galactic star formation distribution, we find that these normalized gradients do not vary significantly with either stellar mass or redshift. We place our results in the context of previous simulations and show that TNG50 high-redshift gradients are more negative than those of models featuring burstier feedback, which may further highlight high-redshift gradients as important discriminators of galaxy formation models. We also find that z = 0 and z = 0.5 TNG50 gradients are consistent with the gradients more »
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Award ID(s):
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10283659
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume:
506
Issue:
2
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
3024 to 3048
ISSN:
0035-8711
Low-metallicity stars give rise to unique spectacular transients and are of immense interest for understanding stellar evolution. Their importance has only grown further with the recent detections of mergers of stellar mass black holes that likely originate mainly from low-metallicity progenitor systems. Moreover, the formation of low-metallicity stars is intricately linked to galaxy evolution, in particular to early enrichment and to later accretion and mixing of lower metallicity gas. Because low-metallicity stars are difficult to observe directly, cosmological simulations are crucial for understanding their formation. Here, we quantify the rates and locations of low-metallicity star formation using the high-resolution TNG50 magnetohydrodynamical cosmological simulation, and we examine where low-metallicity stars end up at z = 0. We find that $20{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ of stars with $Z_*\lt 0.1\, \mathrm{Z_\odot }$ form after z = 2, and that such stars are still forming in galaxies of all masses at z = 0 today. Moreover, most low-metallicity stars at z = 0 reside in massive galaxies. We analyse the radial distribution of low-metallicity star formation and discuss the curious case of seven galaxies in TNG50 that form stars from primordial gas even at z = 0.
4. ABSTRACT We use the magnetic-hydrodynamical simulation TNG50 to study the evolution of barred massive disc galaxies. Massive spiral galaxies are already present as early as z = 4, and bar formation takes place already at those early times. The bars grow longer and stronger as the host galaxies evolve, with the bar sizes increasing at a pace similar to that of the disc scalelengths. The bar fraction mildly evolves with redshift for galaxies with $M_{*}\ge 10^{10}\rm M_{\odot }$, being greater than $\sim 40{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ at 0.5 < z < 3 and $\sim 30{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ at z = 0. When bars larger than a given physical size ($\ge 2\, \rm kpc$) or the angular resolution limit of twice the I-band angular PSF FWHM of the HST are considered, the bar fraction dramatically decreases with increasing redshift, reconciling the theoretical predictions with observational data. We find that barred galaxies have an older stellar population, lower gas fractions, and star formation rates than unbarred galaxies. In most cases, the discs of barred galaxies assembled earlier and faster than the discs of unbarred galaxies. We also find that barred galaxies are typical in haloes with larger concentrations and smaller spin parameters thanmore »