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Title: Arsenate-Induced Changes in Bacterial Metabolite and Lipid Pools during Phosphate Stress
ABSTRACT Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 is a heterotrophic arsenite-oxidizing bacterium with a high resistance to arsenic toxicity. It is now a model organism for studying the processes of arsenic detoxification and utilization. Previously, we demonstrated that under low-phosphate conditions, arsenate [As(V)] could enhance bacterial growth and be incorporated into biomolecules, including lipids. While the basic microbial As(V) resistance mechanisms have been characterized, global metabolic responses under low phosphate remain largely unknown. In the present work, the impacts of As(V) and low phosphate on intracellular metabolite and lipid profiles of GW4 were quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) in combination with transcriptional assays and the analysis of intracellular ATP and NADH levels. Metabolite profiling revealed that oxidative stress response pathways were altered and suggested an increase in DNA repair. Changes in metabolite levels in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle along with increased ATP are consistent with As(V)-enhanced growth of A. tumefaciens GW4. Lipidomics analysis revealed that most glycerophospholipids decreased in abundance when As(V) was available. However, several glycerolipid classes increased, an outcome that is consistent with maximizing growth via a phosphate-sparing phenotype. Differentially regulated lipids included phosphotidylcholine and lysophospholipids, which have not been previously reported in A. tumefaciens . The metabolites and more » lipids identified in this study deepen our understanding of the interplay between phosphate and arsenate on chemical and metabolic levels. IMPORTANCE Arsenic is widespread in the environment and is one of the most ubiquitous environmental pollutants. Parodoxically, the growth of certain bacteria is enhanced by arsenic when phosphate is limited. Arsenate and phosphate are chemically similar, and this behavior is believed to represent a phosphate-sparing phenotype in which arsenate is used in place of phosphate in certain biomolecules. The research presented here uses a global approach to track metabolic changes in an environmentally relevant bacterium during exposure to arsenate when phosphate is low. Our findings are relevant for understanding the environmental fate of arsenic as well as how human-associated microbiomes respond to this common toxin. « less
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Atomi, Haruyuki
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Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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