- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- H52 to H65
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Exploring the difference in the mechanics of vascular smooth muscle cells from wild type and apolipoprotein-E knockout miceAtherosclerosis-related cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) comprise the medial layer of the arterial wall and undergo phenotypic switching during atherosclerosis to a synthetic phenotype capable of proliferation and migration. The surrounding environment undergoes alterations in extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness and composition in addition to an increase in addition to an increase in cholesterol content. Using an atherosclerotic murine model, we analyzed how the mechanics of VSMCs isolated from western diet fed apolipoprotein-E knockout (ApoE -/- ) and wild type (WT) mice were altered during atherosclerosis. Increased stiffness of ApoE -/- VSMCs correlated with a greater degree of stress fiber alignment as evidenced by atomic force microscopy (AFM)-generated force maps and stress fiber topography images. On type-1 collagen (COL1)-coated polyacrylamide (PA) gels of varying stiffness, WT VSMCs had higher adhesion forces to N-Cadherin (N-Cad) and COL1. ApoE -/- VSMC stiffness was significantly greater than WT cells with increased cell stiffness with increasing substrate stiffness for both ApoE -/- and WT VSMCs . In addition, ApoE -/- VSMCs showed an enhanced migration capability on COL1-coated substrates and a general decreasing trend in migration capacity with increasing substrate stiffness, correlating with the lower adhesionmore »
Introduction: Vascular diseases like abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are characterized by a drastic remodeling of the vessel wall, accompanied with changes in the elastin and collagen content. At the macromolecular level, the elastin fibers in AAA have been reported to undergo significant structural alterations. While the undulations (waviness) of the collagen fibers is also reduced in AAA, very little is understood about changes in the collagen fibril at the sub-fiber level in AAA as well as in other vascular pathologies. Materials and Methods: In this study we investigated structural changes in collagen fibrils in human AAA tissue extracted at the time of vascular surgery and in aorta extracted from angiotensin II (AngII) infused ApoE−/− mouse model of AAA. Collagen fibril structure was examined using transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Images were analyzed to ascertain length and depth of D-periodicity, fibril diameter and fibril curvature. Tissues were also stained using collagen hybridizing peptide (CHP) and analyzed using fluorescent microscopy and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy to locate regions of healthy and degraded collagen. Results: Abnormal collagen fibrils with compromised D-periodic banding were observed in the excised human tissue and in remodeled regions of AAA in AngII infused mice (Figuremore »
Sulfated Polysaccharides from Enteromorpha prolifera Attenuate Lipid Metabolism Disorders in Mice with Obesity Induced by a High-Fat Diet via a Pathway Dependent on AMP-Activated Protein Kinase
Obesity-related metabolic diseases have recently evoked worldwide attention. Studies have demonstrated that Enteromorpha polysaccharide (EP) exerts lipid-lowering effects, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear.
We investigated whether EP regulates lipid metabolism disorders in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)–induced obesity via an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)–dependent pathway.
Six-week-old male C57BL/6J mice (18 ± 2 g) were fed a normal diet (ND; 10% energy from fats) or an HFD (60% energy from fats) for 6 weeks to induce obesity and treated intragastrically with EP (200 mg/kg body weight) or distilled water (10 mL/kg body weight) for 8 weeks. Biochemical indicators, AMPK-dependent pathways, and lipid metabolism–related genes were evaluated to assess the effects of EP on HFD-induced lipid metabolism disorders. The essential role of AMPK in the EP-mediated regulation of lipid metabolism was confirmed using HFD-fed male Ampka2-knockout mice (aged 6 weeks; 17 ± 2 g) treated or not treated with the above-mentioned dose of EP. The data were analyzed by t-tests, 2-factor and 1-way ANOVAs.
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These findings suggest that EP can ameliorate lipid metabolism disorders in mice with HFD-induced obesity via an AMPK-dependent pathway.
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