Content delivery networks (CDNs) commonly use DNS to map end-users to the best edge servers. A recently proposed EDNS0-Client-Subnet (ECS) extension allows recursive resolvers to include end-user subnet information in DNS queries, so that authoritative DNS servers, especially those belonging to CDNs, could use this information to improve user mapping. In this paper, we study the ECS behavior of ECS-enabled recursive resolvers from the perspectives of the opposite sides of a DNS interaction, the authoritative DNS servers of a major CDN and a busy DNS resolution service. We find a range of erroneous (i.e., deviating from the protocol specification) and detrimental (even if compliant) behaviors that may unnecessarily erode client privacy, reduce the effectiveness of DNS caching, diminish ECS benefits, and in some cases turn ECS from facilitator into an obstacle to authoritative DNS servers' ability to optimize user-to-edge-server mappings.
Trufflehunter: Cache Snooping Rare Domains at Large Public DNS Resolvers
This paper presents and evaluates Trufflehunter, a DNS cache snooping tool for estimating the prevalence of rare and sensitive Internet applications. Unlike previous efforts that have focused on small, misconfigured open DNS resolvers, Trufflehunter models the complex behavior of large multi-layer distributed caching infrastructures (e.g., such as Google Public DNS). In particular, using controlled experiments, we have inferred the caching strategies of the four most popular public DNS resolvers (Google Public DNS, Cloudflare Quad1, OpenDNS and Quad9). The large footprint of such resolvers presents an opportunity to observe rare domain usage, while preserving the privacy of the users accessing them. Using a controlled testbed, we evaluate how accurately Trufflehunter can estimate domain name usage across the U.S. Applying this technique in the wild, we provide a lower-bound estimate of the popularity of several rare and sensitive applications (most notably smartphone stalkerware) which are otherwise challenging to survey.
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Proceedings of the Internet Measurement Conference (IMC'20)
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 50 to 64
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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