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Title: One Step Synthesis of Sr 2 Fe 1.3 Co 0.2 Mo 0.5 O 6−δ -Gd 0.1 Ce 0.9 O 2−δ for Symmetrical Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
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Journal of The Electrochemical Society
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National Science Foundation
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  1. A free-standing film composed of bilayered vanadium oxide nanoflakes is for the first time synthesized using a new low-energy process. The precursor powder, δ-Li x V 2 O 5 · n H 2 O, was prepared using a simple sol–gel based chemical preintercalation synthesis procedure. δ-Li x V 2 O 5 · n H 2 O was dispersed and probe sonicated in N -methyl pyrrolidone to exfoliate the bilayers followed by vacuum filtration resulting in the formation of a free-standing film with obsidian color. X-ray diffraction showed lamellar ordering of a single-phase material with a decreased interlayer distance compared to that of the precursor powder. Scanning electron microscopy images demonstrated stacking of the individual nanoflakes. This morphology was further confirmed with scanning transmission electron microscopy that showed highly malleable nanoflakes consisting of ∼10–100 vanadium oxide bilayers. One of the most important consequences of this morphological rearrangement is that the electronic conductivity of the free-standing film, measured by the four-probe method, increased by an order of magnitude compared to conductivity of the pressed pellet made of precursor powder. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements showed the coexistence of both V 5+ and V 4+ oxidation states in the exfoliated sample, possibly contributing tomore »the change in electronic conductivity. The developed approach provides the ability to maintain the phase purity and crystallographic order during the exfoliation process, coupled with the formation of a free-standing film of enhanced conductivity. The produced bilayered vanadium oxide nanoflakes can be used as the building blocks for the synthesis of versatile two-dimensional heterostructures to create innovative electrodes for electrochemical energy storage applications.« less
  2. Combining experimental and theoretical studies, we investigate the role of R-site (R = Y, Sm, Bi) element on the phase formation and thermal stability of R 2 (Mn 1−x Fe x ) 4 O 10−δ ( x = 0, 0.5, 1) mullite-type oxides. Our results show a distinct R-site dependent phase behavior for mullite-type oxides as Fe is substituted for Mn: 100% mullite-type phase was formed in (Y, Sm, Bi) 2 Mn 4 O 10 ; 55% and 18% of (Y, Sm) 2 Mn 2 Fe 2 O 10−δ was found when R = Y and Sm, respectively, for equal Fe and Mn molar concentrations in the reactants, whereas Bi formed 54% O10- and 42% O9-mixed mullite-type phases. Furthermore, when the reactants contain 100% Fe, no mullite-type phase was formed for R = Y and Sm, but a sub-group transition to Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 O9-phase was found for R = Bi. Thermogravimetric analysis and density functional theory (DFT) calculation results show a decreasing thermal stability in O10-type structure with increasing Fe incorporation; for example, the decomposition temperature is 1142 K for Bi 2 Mn 2 Fe 2 O 10−δ vs. 1217 K for Bi 2 Mn 4more »O 10 . On the other hand, Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 O9-type structure is found to be thermally stable up to 1227 K. These findings are explained by electronic structure calculations: (1) as Fe concentration increases, Jahn–Teller distortion results in mid band-gap empty states from unstable Fe 4+ occupied octahedra, which is responsible for the decrease in O10 structure stability; (2) the directional sp orbital hybridization unique to Bi effectively stabilizes the mullite-type structure as Fe replaces Mn.« less