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Title: Quasi-continuous wavelength tuning of single-mode interband cascade lasers based on V-coupled cavity
Mid-infrared semiconductor lasers have a wide range of applications in gas sensing, environmental monitoring, medical diagnosis and other fields. The V-coupled cavity laser (VCCL) approach has been successfully applied in the communication band to achieve single-mode operation with a wide tuning range because of its advantages of no grating, compact structure and simple wavelength control. In this paper, the concept of V-coupled cavity is introduced to the interband cascaded lasers, and a monolithically integrated mid-infrared widely tunable single-mode laser is developed. In addition, we experimentally demonstrated a simple and general algorithm for wavelength tuning controlled by two electrodes synchronously, and realized quasi-continuous tuning of single-mode wavelength in mid-infrared interband cascade laser based on the V-coupled cavity configuration for the first time. In the tuning process, the injection current of the short cavity remains unchanged, and the stepped increase of the long cavity current is equivalent to the realization of discrete tuning with the channel spacing of 1.1 nm determined by the short cavity. With the increase of the injection current of the coupler electrode while fixing the long cavity current, the thermo-optic effect caused by the coupler current will cause the refractive index of the two FP cavities to change together, thus more » realizing the fine tuning of the laser wavelength. A total tuning range of 53.2 nm has been achieved, from 2.8244 μm to 2.8776 μm, with the temperature adjusted from 110K to 120K. « less
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Zhu, Ning Hua; Hofmann, Werner H.; He, Jian-Jun
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Semiconductor Lasers and Applications X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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  1. Resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) have come full-circle in the past 10 years after their demonstration in the early 1990s as the fastest room-temperature semiconductor oscillator, displaying experimental results up to 712 GHz and fmax values exceeding 1.0 THz [1]. Now the RTD is once again the preeminent electronic oscillator above 1.0 THz and is being implemented as a coherent source [2] and a self-oscillating mixer [3], amongst other applications. This paper concerns RTD electroluminescence – an effect that has been studied very little in the past 30+ years of RTD development, and not at room temperature. We present experiments and modeling of an n-type In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs double-barrier RTD operating as a cross-gap light emitter at ~300K. The MBE-growth stack is shown in Fig. 1(a). A 15-μm-diam-mesa device was defined by standard planar processing including a top annular ohmic contact with a 5-μm-diam pinhole in the center to couple out enough of the internal emission for accurate free-space power measurements [4]. The emission spectra have the behavior displayed in Fig. 1(b), parameterized by bias voltage (VB). The long wavelength emission edge is at  = 1684 nm - close to the In0.53Ga0.47As bandgap energy of Ug ≈ 0.75 eV at 300 K.more »The spectral peaks for VB = 2.8 and 3.0 V both occur around  = 1550 nm (h = 0.75 eV), so blue-shifted relative to the peak of the “ideal”, bulk InGaAs emission spectrum shown in Fig. 1(b) [5]. These results are consistent with the model displayed in Fig. 1(c), whereby the broad emission peak is attributed to the radiative recombination between electrons accumulated on the emitter side, and holes generated on the emitter side by interband tunneling with current density Jinter. 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The I-V curve displays a pronounced NDR region having a current peak-to-valley current ratio of 10.7 (typical for In0.53Ga0.47As RTDs). The external quantum efficiency (EQE) was calculated from EQE = e∙IP/(∙IE∙h) where IP is the photodiode dc current and IE the RTD current. The plot of EQE is shown in Fig. 2(b) where we see a very rapid rise with VB, but a maximum value (at VB= 3.0 V) of only ≈2×10-5. To extract the internal quantum efficiency (IQE), we use the expression EQE= c ∙i ∙r ≡ c∙IQE where ci, and r are the optical-coupling, electrical-injection, and radiative recombination efficiencies, respectively [6]. Our separate optical calculations yield c≈3.4×10-4 (limited primarily by the small pinhole) from which we obtain the curve of IQE plotted in Fig. 2(b) (right-hand scale). The maximum value of IQE (again at VB = 3.0 V) is 6.0%. 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Fig. 3(b) shows the tunneling probability T according to the Kane two-band model in the three materials, In0.53Ga0.47As, GaAs, and GaN, following our observation of a similar electroluminescence mechanism in GaN/AlN RTDs (due to strong polarization field of wurtzite structures) [8]. The expression is Tinter = (2/9)∙exp[(-2 ∙Ug 2 ∙me)/(2h∙P∙E)], where Ug is the bandgap energy, P is the valence-to-conduction-band momentum matrix element, and E is the electric field. Values for the highest calculated internal E fields for the InGaAs and GaN are also shown, indicating that Tinter in those structures approaches values of ~10-5. As shown, a GaAs RTD would require an internal field of ~6×105 V/cm, which is rarely realized in standard GaAs RTDs, perhaps explaining why there have been few if any reports of room-temperature electroluminescence in the GaAs devices. [1] E.R. Brown,et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, 2291, 1991. [5] S. 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