skip to main content

Title: A multiproxy database of western North American Holocene paleoclimate records
Abstract. Holocene climate reconstructions are useful for understanding the diversefeatures and spatial heterogeneity of past and future climate change. Herewe present a database of western North American Holocene paleoclimaterecords. The database gathers paleoclimate time series from 184 terrestrialand marine sites, including 381 individual proxy records. The records spanat least 4000 of the last 12 000 years (median duration of 10 725 years)and have been screened for resolution, chronologic control, and climatesensitivity. Records were included that reflect temperature, hydroclimate,or circulation features. The database is shared in the machine readableLinked Paleo Data (LiPD) format and includes geochronologic data forgenerating site-level time-uncertain ensembles. This publicly accessible andcurated collection of proxy paleoclimate records will have wide researchapplications, including, for example, investigations of the primary featuresof ocean–atmospheric circulation along the eastern margin of the NorthPacific and the latitudinal response of climate to orbital changes. Thedatabase is available for download at https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.12863843.v1 (Routson and McKay, 2020).
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; more » ; ; ; ; ; ; « less
Award ID(s):
1903548 1903465
Publication Date:
NSF-PAR ID:
10289821
Journal Name:
Earth System Science Data
Volume:
13
Issue:
4
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
1613 to 1632
ISSN:
1866-3516
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Climate in the Iberian Peninsula is impacted by both internal and external climate modes, which are expected to shift in position and intensity due to anthropogenic climate change. Examples of such modes include the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the East Atlantic mode (EA). Changes in the behavior in these regional climate modes could significantly alter water availability in the Iberian Peninsula, a region identified by model projections as particularly sensitive to future warming scenarios. There has been extensive research and paleoclimate reconstructions of the NAO and its impacts on Iberian climate. However, to date few paleoclimate records have beenmore »developed to evaluate the behavior of the EA over the late Holocene and into the present. The development of highly resolved regional paleoclimate records from Iberia is critical for improving the predictive capability of regional climate models under future warming scenarios and to determine the extent to which different teleconnection patterns are influencing climate. Here we present a near annually resolved stable carbon isotope (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope time-series from three stalagmites from the Algarve region of southern Portugal from two caves within 2.3 km of each other. The southern coast of Portugal offers an ideal location to study the behavior of the EA due to the modulation of storm tracks coming across the North Atlantic Ocean into Iberia associated with the EA. U/Th dating indicates that our composite record spans the last millennia continuously through 2018 CE. Two stalagmites (GIA-19-1 and C-18-1) stopped growing around 1600 CE, during a dry interval, and sample GIA-19-2 grew continuously since the 15th century. GIA-19-2, with sub-annual resolution, is compared to modern instrumental records to evaluate the influence of specific environmental controls, including temperature and precipitation amounts. Isotope data from all three stalagmites exhibit substantial multidecadal variability indicating relatively wet and dry intervals. Based on our initial results, it is likely that both temperature and precipitation amount effects are the dominant controls on isotopic variability in these stalagmites. Comparison of the GIA-19-2 oxygen isotope time-series with the instrumental index (1950 to present) and reconstructed index (1650 CE to present) of the EA mode shows strong coherence with both index records. Hence, multidecadal variability observed in our stalagmite isotope time series may provide insight into the historical behavior of the EA mode and its resulting impacts on southern Portuguese climate.« less
  2. Climate in the Iberian Peninsula is impacted by both internal and external climate modes, which are expected to shift in position and intensity due to anthropogenic climate change. Examples of such modes include the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the East Atlantic mode (EA). Changes in the behavior in these regional climate modes could significantly alter water availability in the Iberian Peninsula, a region identified by model projections as particularly sensitive to future warming scenarios. There has been extensive research and paleoclimate reconstructions of the NAO and its impacts on Iberian climate. However, to date few paleoclimate records have beenmore »developed to evaluate the behavior of the EA over the late Holocene and into the present. The development of highly resolved regional paleoclimate records from Iberia is critical for improving the predictive capability of regional climate models under future warming scenarios and to determine the extent to which different teleconnection patterns are influencing climate. Here we present a near annually resolved stable carbon isotope (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope time-series from three stalagmites from the Algarve region of southern Portugal from two caves within 2.3 km of each other. The southern coast of Portugal offers an ideal location to study the behavior of the EA due to the modulation of storm tracks coming across the North Atlantic Ocean into Iberia associated with the EA. U/Th dating indicates that our composite record spans the last millennia continuously through 2018 CE. Two stalagmites (GIA-19-1 and C-18-1) stopped growing around 1600 CE, during a dry interval, and sample GIA-19-2 grew continuously since the 15th century. GIA-19-2, with sub-annual resolution, is compared to modern instrumental records to evaluate the influence of specific environmental controls, including temperature and precipitation amounts. Isotope data from all three stalagmites exhibit substantial multidecadal variability indicating relatively wet and dry intervals. Based on our initial results, it is likely that both temperature and precipitation amount effects are the dominant controls on isotopic variability in these stalagmites. Comparison of the GIA-19-2 oxygen isotope time-series with the instrumental index (1950 to present) and reconstructed index (1650 CE to present) of the EA mode shows strong coherence with both index records. Hence, multidecadal variability observed in our stalagmite isotope time series may provide insight into the historical behavior of the EA mode and its resulting impacts on southern Portuguese climate.« less
  3. Abstract. The Last Millennium Reanalysis (LMR) utilizes an ensemble methodology to assimilate paleoclimate data for the production of annually resolved climate field reconstructions of the Common Era. Two key elements are the focus of this work: the set of assimilated proxy records and the forward models that map climate variables to proxy measurements. Results based on an updated proxy database and seasonal regression-based forward models are compared to the LMR prototype, which was based on a smaller set of proxy records and simpler proxy models formulated as univariate linear regressions against annual temperature. Validation against various instrumental-era gridded analyses showsmore »that the new reconstructions of surface air temperature and 500 hPa geopotential height are significantly improved (from 10 % to more than 100 %), while improvements in reconstruction of the Palmer Drought Severity Index are more modest. Additional experiments designed to isolate the sources of improvement reveal the importance of the updated proxy records, including coral records for improving tropical reconstructions, and tree-ring density records for temperature reconstructions, particularly in high northern latitudes. Proxy forward models that account for seasonal responses, and dependence on both temperature and moisture for tree-ring width, also contribute to improvements in reconstructed thermodynamic and hydroclimate variables in midlatitudes. The variability of temperature at multidecadal to centennial scales is also shown to be sensitive to the set of assimilated proxies, especially to the inclusion of primarily moisture-sensitive tree-ring-width records.« less
  4. Abstract. Reconstructions of global hydroclimate during the Common Era (CE; the past ∼2000 years) are important for providing context for current and future global environmental change. Stable isotope ratios in water are quantitative indicators of hydroclimate on regional to global scales, and these signals are encoded in a wide range of natural geologic archives. Here we present the Iso2k database, a global compilation of previously published datasets from a variety of natural archives that record the stable oxygen (δ18O) or hydrogen (δ2H) isotopic compositions of environmental waters, which reflect hydroclimate changes over the CE. The Iso2k database contains 759 isotope records from the terrestrial and marinemore »realms, including glacier and ground ice (210); speleothems (68); corals, sclerosponges, and mollusks (143); wood (81); lake sediments and other terrestrial sediments (e.g., loess) (158); and marine sediments (99). Individual datasets have temporal resolutions ranging from sub-annual to centennial and include chronological data where available. A fundamental feature of the database is its comprehensive metadata, which will assist both experts and nonexperts in the interpretation of each record and in data synthesis. Key metadata fields have standardized vocabularies to facilitate comparisons across diversearchives and with climate-model-simulated fields. This is the firstglobal-scale collection of water isotope proxy records from multiple typesof geological and biological archives. It is suitable for evaluatinghydroclimate processes through time and space using large-scale synthesis,model–data intercomparison and (paleo)data assimilation. The Iso2k databaseis available for download at https://doi.org/10.25921/57j8-vs18 (Konecky and McKay, 2020) and is also accessible via the NOAA/WDS Paleo Datalanding page: https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/study/29593 (last access: 30 July 2020).« less
  5. Abstract. Reconstructions of past temperature and precipitation are fundamental to modeling the Greenland Ice Sheet and assessing its sensitivity to climate. Paleoclimate information is sourced from proxy records and climate-model simulations; however, the former are spatially incomplete while the latter are sensitive to model dynamics and boundary conditions. Efforts to combine these sources of information to reconstruct spatial patterns of Greenland climate over glacial–interglacial cycles have been limited by assumptions of fixed spatial patterns and a restricted use of proxy data. We avoid these limitations by using paleoclimate data assimilation to create independent reconstructions of mean-annual temperature and precipitation formore »the last 20 000 years. Our method uses oxygen isotope ratios of ice and accumulation rates from long ice-core records and extends this information to all locations across Greenland using spatial relationships derived from a transient climate-model simulation. Standard evaluation metrics for this method show that our results capture climate at locations without ice-core records. Our results differ from previous work in the reconstructed spatial pattern of temperature change during abrupt climate transitions; this indicates a need for additional proxy data and additional transient climate-model simulations. We investigate the relationship between precipitation and temperature, finding that it is frequency dependent and spatially variable, suggesting that thermodynamic scaling methods commonly used in ice-sheet modeling are overly simplistic. Our results demonstrate that paleoclimate data assimilation is a useful tool for reconstructing the spatial and temporal patterns of past climate on timescales relevant to ice sheets.« less