skip to main content


The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 5:00 PM ET until 11:00 PM ET on Friday, June 21 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.

Title: Reduced-dimensional surface hopping with offline–online computations
Molecular dynamics simulations often classically evolve the nuclear geometry on adiabatic potential energy surfaces (PESs), punctuated by random hops between energy levels in regions of strong coupling, in an algorithm known as surface hopping. However, the computational expense of integrating the geometry on a full-dimensional PES and computing the required couplings can quickly become prohibitive as the number of atoms increases. In this work, we describe a method for surface hopping that uses only important reaction coordinates, performs all expensive evaluations of the true PESs and couplings only once before simulating dynamics (offline), and then queries the stored values during the surface hopping simulation (online). Our Python codes are freely available on GitHub. Using photodissociation of azomethane as a test case, this method is able to reproduce experimental results that have thus far eluded ab initio surface hopping studies.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1745654 1906446
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. State-to-state rotational energy transfer in collisions of ground ro-vibrational state 13 CO molecules with N 2 molecules has been studied using the crossed molecular beam method under kinematically equivalent conditions used for 13 CO + CO rotationally inelastic scattering described in a previously published report (Sun et al. , Science , 2020, 369 , 307–309). The collisionally excited 13 CO molecule products are detected by the same (1 + 1′ + 1′′) VUV (Vacuum Ultra-Violet) resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization scheme coupled with velocity map ion imaging. We present differential cross sections and scattering angle resolved rotational angular momentum alignment moments extracted from experimentally measured 13 CO + N 2 scattering images and compare them with theoretical predictions from quasi-classical trajectories (QCT) on a newly calculated 13 CO–N 2 potential energy surface (PES). Good agreement between experiment and theory is found, which confirms the accuracy of the 13 CO–N 2 potential energy surface for the 1460 cm −1 collision energy studied by experiment. Experimental results for 13 CO + N 2 are compared with those for 13 CO + CO collisions. The angle-resolved product rotational angular momentum alignment moments for the two scattering systems are very similar, which indicates that the collision induced alignment dynamics observed for both systems are dominated by a hard-shell nature. However, compared to the 13 CO + CO measurements, the primary rainbow maximum in the DCSs for 13 CO + N 2 is peaked consistently at more backward scattering angles and the secondary maximum becomes much less obvious, implying that the 13 CO–N 2 PES is less anisotropic. In addition, a forward scattering component with high rotational excitation seen for 13 CO + CO does not appear for 13 CO–N 2 in the experiment and is not predicted by QCT theory. Some of these differences in collision dynamics behaviour can be predicted by a comparison between the properties of the PESs for the two systems. More specific behaviour is also predicted from analysis of the dependence on the relative collision geometry of 13 CO + N 2 trajectories compared to 13 CO + CO trajectories, which shows the special ‘do-si-do’ pathway invoked for 13 CO + CO is not effective for 13 CO + N 2 collisions. 
    more » « less
  2. In this article, we review nonadiabatic molecular dynamics (NAMD) methods for modeling spin-crossover transitions. First, we discuss different representations of electronic states employed in the grid-based and direct NAMD simulations. The nature of interstate couplings in different representations is highlighted, with the main focus on nonadiabatic and spin-orbit couplings. Second, we describe three NAMD methods that have been used to simulate spin-crossover dynamics, including trajectory surface hopping, ab initio multiple spawning, and multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree. Some aspects of employing different electronic structure methods to obtain information about potential energy surfaces and interstate couplings for NAMD simulations are also discussed. Third, representative applications of NAMD to spin crossovers in molecular systems of different sizes and complexities are highlighted. Finally, we pose several fundamental questions related to spin-dependent processes. These questions should be possible to address with future methodological developments in NAMD. 
    more » « less
  3. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with full-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) obtained from high-level ab initio calculations are frequently used to model reaction dynamics of small molecules (i.e., molecules with up to 10 atoms). Construction of full-dimensional PESs for larger molecules is, however, not feasible since the number of ab initio calculations required grows rapidly with the increase of dimension. Only a small number of coordinates are often essential for describing the reactivity of even very large systems, and reduced-dimensional PESs with these coordinates can be built for reaction dynamics studies. While analytical methods based on transition-state theory framework are well established for analyzing the reduced-dimensionalPESs, MD simulation algorithms capable of generating trajectories on such surfaces are more rare. In this work, we present a new MD implementation that utilizes the relaxed reduced-dimensional PES for standard micro canonical (NVE) and canonical (NVT) MD simulations.The method is applied to the pyramidal inversion of a NH3molecule. The results from the MD simulations on a reduced, three-dimensional PES are validated against the ab initio MD simulations, as well as MD simulations on full-dimensional PES and experimental data. 
    more » « less
  4. We present NEXMD version 2.0, the second release of the NEXMD (Nonadiabatic EXcited-state Molecular Dynamics) software package. Across a variety of new features, NEXMD v2.0 incorporates new implementations of two hybrid quantum-classical dynamics methods, namely, Ehrenfest dynamics (EHR) and the Ab-Initio Multiple Cloning sampling technique for Multiconfigurational Ehrenfest quantum dynamics (MCE-AIMC or simply AIMC), which are alternative options to the previously implemented trajectory surface hopping (TSH) method. To illustrate these methodologies, we outline a direct comparison of these three hybrid quantum-classical dynamics methods as implemented in the same NEXMD framework, discussing their weaknesses and strengths, using the modeled photodynamics of a polyphenylene ethylene dendrimer building block as a representative example. We also describe the expanded normal-mode analysis and constraints for both the ground and excited states, newly implemented in the NEXMD v2.0 framework, which allow for a deeper analysis of the main vibrational motions involved in vibronic dynamics. Overall, NEXMD v2.0 expands the range of applications of NEXMD to a larger variety of multichromophore organic molecules and photophysical processes involving quantum coherences and persistent couplings between electronic excited states and nuclear velocity. 
    more » « less
  5. The quantum chemistry community has developed analytic forces for approximate electronic excited states to enable walking on excited state potential energy surfaces (PES). One can thereby computationally characterize excited state minima and saddle points. Always implicit in using this machinery is the fact that an excited state PES only exists within the realm of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, where the nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom separate. This work demonstrates through ab initio calculations and simple nonadiabatic dynamics that some excited state minimum structures are fantastical: they appear to exist as stable configurations only as a consequence of the PES construct, rather than being physically observable. Each fantastical structure exhibits an unphysically high predicted harmonic frequency and associated force constant. This fact can serve as a valuable diagnostic of when an optimized excited state structure is non-observable. The origin of this phenomenon can be attributed to the coupling between different electronic states. As PESs approach one another, the upper surface can form a minimum that is very close to a near-touching point. The force constant, evaluated at this minimum, relates to the strength of the electronic coupling rather than to any characteristic excited state vibration. Nonadiabatic dynamics results using a Landau-Zener model illustrate that fantastical excited state structures have extremely short lifetimes on the order of a few femtoseconds. Their appearance in a calculation signals the presence of a nearby conical intersection through which the system will rapidly cross to a lower surface.

    more » « less